ultrasonics


ultrasonics
/ul'treuh son"iks/, n. (used with a sing. v.)
the branch of science that deals with the effects of sound waves above human perception.
[1930-35; see ULTRASONIC, -ICS]

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Vibrational or stress waves in elastic media that have a frequency above 20 kilohertz, the highest frequency of sound waves that can be detected by the human ear.

The waves may be longitudinal (as in air or solids) or transverse (as in liquids). They can be generated or detected by piezoelectric transducers (see piezoelectricity). High-power ultrasonics produce distortion in the medium; applications include ultrasonic welding, drilling, irradiation of fluid suspensions (as in wine clarification), cleaning of surfaces (such as jewelry), and disruption of biological structures. Low-power ultrasonic waves do not cause distortions; the uses include sonar, structure testing, and medical imaging and diagnosis. Some animals, including bats, employ ultrasonic echolocation for navigation.

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Introduction

      vibrations of frequencies greater than the upper limit of the audible range for humans—that is, greater than about 20 kilohertz. The term sonic is applied to ultrasound waves of very high amplitudes. Hypersound, sometimes called praetersound or microsound, is sound waves of frequencies greater than 1013 hertz. At such high frequencies it is very difficult for a sound wave to propagate efficiently; indeed, above a frequency of about 1.25 × 1013 hertz, it is impossible for longitudinal waves (longitudinal wave) to propagate at all, even in a liquid or a solid, because the molecules of the material in which the waves are traveling cannot pass the vibration along rapidly enough.

       Frequency range of hearing for humans and selected animalsMany animals (animal) have the ability to hear sounds in the human ultrasonic frequency range. Some ranges of hearing for mammals and insects are compared with those of humans in the Table (Frequency range of hearing for humans and selected animals). A presumed sensitivity of roaches (cockroach) and rodents (rodent) to frequencies in the 40 kilohertz region has led to the manufacture of “pest controllers” that emit loud sounds in that frequency range to drive the pests away, but they do not appear to work as advertised.

Transducers
      An ultrasonic transducer is a device used to convert some other type of energy into an ultrasonic vibration. There are several basic types, classified by the energy source and by the medium into which the waves are being generated. Mechanical devices include gas-driven, or pneumatic, transducers such as whistles as well as liquid-driven transducers such as hydrodynamic oscillators and vibrating blades. These devices, limited to low ultrasonic frequencies, have a number of industrial applications, including drying, ultrasonic cleaning, and injection of fuel oil into burners. Electromechanical transducers (electromechanical transducer) are far more versatile and include piezoelectric and magnetostrictive devices. A magnetostrictive transducer makes use of a type of magnetic material in which an applied oscillating magnetic field squeezes the atoms of the material together, creating a periodic change in the length of the material and thus producing a high-frequency mechanical vibration. Magnetostrictive transducers are used primarily in the lower frequency ranges and are common in ultrasonic cleaners and ultrasonic machining applications.

      By far the most popular and versatile type of ultrasonic transducer is the piezoelectric crystal (crystal), which converts an oscillating electric field applied to the crystal into a mechanical vibration. Piezoelectric crystals include quartz, Rochelle salt, and certain types of ceramic. Piezoelectric transducers are readily employed over the entire frequency range and at all output levels. Particular shapes can be chosen for particular applications. For example, a disc shape provides a plane ultrasonic wave, while curving the radiating surface in a slightly concave or bowl shape creates an ultrasonic wave that will focus at a specific point.

      Piezoelectric and magnetostrictive transducers also are employed as ultrasonic receivers, picking up an ultrasonic vibration and converting it into an electrical oscillation.

Applications in research
      One of the important areas of scientific study in which ultrasonics has had an enormous impact is cavitation. When water is boiled, bubbles form at the bottom of the container, rise in the water, and then collapse, leading to the sound of the boiling water. The boiling process and the resulting sounds have intrigued people since they were first observed, and they were the object of considerable research and calculation by the British physicists Osborne Reynolds (Reynolds, Osborne) and Lord Rayleigh (Rayleigh, John William Strutt, 3rd Baron), who applied the term cavitation to the process of formation of bubbles. Because an ultrasonic wave can be used carefully to control cavitation, ultrasound has been a useful tool in the investigation of the process. The study of cavitation has also provided important information on intermolecular forces.

      Research is being carried out on aspects of the cavitation process and its applications. A contemporary subject of research involves emission of light as the cavity produced by a high-intensity ultrasonic wave collapses. This effect, called sonoluminescence, is believed to create instantaneous temperatures hotter than the surface of the Sun.

      The speed of propagation of an ultrasonic wave is strongly dependent on the viscosity of the medium. This property can be a useful tool in investigating the viscosity of materials. Because the various parts of a living cell are distinguished by differing viscosities, acoustical microscopy can make use of this property of cells to “see” into living cells, as will be discussed below in Medical applications (ultrasonics).

Ranging and navigating
       sonar (sound navigation and ranging) has extensive marine applications. By sending out pulses of sound or ultrasound and measuring the time required for the pulses to reflect off a distant object and return to the source, the location of that object can be ascertained and its motion tracked. This technique is used extensively to locate and track submarines (submarine) at sea and to locate explosive mines below the surface of the water. Two boats at known locations can also use triangulation to locate and track a third boat or submarine. The distance over which these techniques can be used is limited by temperature gradients in the water, which bend the beam away from the surface and create shadow regions. One of the advantages of ultrasonic waves over sound waves in underwater applications is that, because of their higher frequencies (or shorter wavelengths), the former will travel greater distances with less diffraction.

      Ranging has also been used to map the bottom of the ocean, providing depth charts that are commonly used in navigation, particularly near coasts and in shallow waterways. Even small boats are now equipped with sonic ranging devices that determine and display the depth of the water so that the navigator can keep the boat from beaching on submerged sandbars or other shallow points. Modern fishing boats use ultrasonic ranging devices to locate schools of fish, substantially increasing their efficiency.

      Even in the absence of visible light, bats (bat) can guide their flight and even locate flying insects (which they consume in flight) through the use of sonic ranging. Ultrasonic echolocation has also been used in traffic control applications and in counting and sorting items on an assembly line. Ultrasonic ranging provides the basis of the eye and vision systems for robots, and it has a number of important medical applications (see below).

      If an ultrasonic wave is reflected off a moving obstacle, the frequency of the resulting wave will be changed, or Doppler-shifted. More specifically, if the obstacle is moving toward the source, the frequency of the reflected wave will be increased; and if the obstacle is moving away from the source, the frequency of the reflected wave will be decreased. The amount of the frequency shift can be used to determine the velocity of the moving obstacle. Just as the Doppler shift for radar, an electromagnetic wave, can be used to determine the speed of a moving car, so can the speed of a moving submarine be determined by the Doppler shift of a sonar beam. An important industrial application is the ultrasonic flow meter, in which reflecting ultrasound off a flowing liquid leads to a Doppler shift that is calibrated to provide the flow rate of the liquid. This technique also has been applied to blood flow in arteries. Many burglar alarms, both for home use and for use in commercial buildings, employ the ultrasonic Doppler shift principle. Such alarms cannot be used where pets or moving curtains might activate them.

      Nondestructive testing involves the use of ultrasonic echolocation to gather information on the integrity of mechanical structures. Since changes in the material present an impedance mismatch from which an ultrasonic wave is reflected, ultrasonic testing can be used to identify faults, holes, cracks, or corrosion in materials, to inspect welds, to determine the quality of poured concrete, and to monitor metal fatigue. Owing to the mechanism by which sound waves propagate in metals, ultrasound can be used to probe more deeply than any other form of radiation. Ultrasonic procedures are used to perform in-service inspection of structures in nuclear reactors.

      Structural flaws in materials can also be studied by subjecting the materials to stress and looking for acoustic emissions as the materials are stressed. Acoustic emission, the general name for this type of nondestructive study, has developed as a distinct field of acoustics.

High-intensity applications
      High-intensity ultrasound has achieved a variety of important applications. Perhaps the most ubiquitous is ultrasonic cleaning, in which ultrasonic vibrations are set up in small liquid tanks in which objects are placed for cleaning. Cavitation of the liquid by the ultrasound, as well as the vibration, create turbulence in the liquid and result in the cleaning action. Ultrasonic cleaning is very popular for jewelry and has also been used with such items as dentures, surgical instruments, and small machinery. Degreasing is often enhanced by ultrasonic cleaning. Large-scale ultrasonic cleaners have also been developed for use in assembly lines.

      Ultrasonic machining employs the high-intensity vibrations of a transducer to move a machine tool. If necessary, a slurry containing carborundum grit may be used; diamond tools can also be used. A variation of this technique is ultrasonic drilling, which makes use of pneumatic vibrations at ultrasonic frequencies in place of the standard rotary drill bit. Holes of virtually any shape can be drilled in hard or brittle materials such as glass, germanium, or ceramic.

      Ultrasonic soldering has become important, especially for soldering unusual or difficult materials and for very clean applications. The ultrasonic vibrations perform the function of cleaning the surface, even removing the oxide layer on aluminum so that the material can be soldered. Because the surfaces can be made extremely clean and free from the normal thin oxide layer, soldering flux becomes unnecessary.

Chemical and electrical uses
      The chemical effects of ultrasound arise from an electrical discharge that accompanies the cavitation process. This forms a basis for ultrasound's acting as a catalyst in certain chemical reactions (chemical reaction), including oxidation, reduction, hydrolysis, polymerization and depolymerization, and molecular rearrangement. With ultrasound, some chemical processes can be carried out more rapidly, at lower temperatures, or more efficiently.

      The ultrasonic delay line is a thin layer of piezoelectric material used to produce a short, precise delay in an electrical signal. The electrical signal creates a mechanical vibration in the piezoelectric crystal that passes through the crystal and is converted back to an electrical signal. A very precise time delay can be achieved by constructing a crystal with the proper thickness. These devices are employed in fast electronic timing circuits.

Medical (medicine) applications
      Although ultrasound competes with other forms of medical imaging (diagnostic imaging), such as X-ray techniques and magnetic resonance imaging, it has certain desirable features—for example, Doppler motion study—that the other techniques cannot provide. In addition, among the various modern techniques for the imaging of internal organs, ultrasonic devices are by far the least expensive. Ultrasound is also used for treating joint pains and for treating certain types of tumours for which it is desirable to produce localized heating. A very effective use of ultrasound deriving from its nature as a mechanical vibration is the elimination of kidney and bladder stones.

      Much medical diagnostic imaging is carried out with X-rays (X-ray). Because of the high photon energies of the X-ray, this type of radiation is highly ionizing—that is, X-rays are readily capable of destroying molecular bonds in the body tissue through which they pass. This destruction can lead to changes in the function of the tissue involved or, in extreme cases, its annihilation.

      One of the important advantages of ultrasound is that it is a mechanical vibration and is therefore a nonionizing form of energy. Thus, it is usable in many sensitive circumstances where X-rays might be damaging. Also, the resolution of X-rays is limited owing to their great penetrating ability and the slight differences between soft tissues. Ultrasound, on the other hand, gives good contrast between various types of soft tissue.

      Ultrasonic scanning in medical diagnosis uses the same principle as sonar. Pulses of high-frequency ultrasound, generally above one megahertz, are created by a piezoelectric transducer and directed into the body. As the ultrasound traverses various internal organs, it encounters changes in acoustic impedance, which cause reflections (reflection). The amount and time delay of the various reflections can be analyzed to obtain information regarding the internal organs. In the B-scan mode, a linear array of transducers is used to scan a plane in the body, and the resultant data is displayed on a television screen as a two-dimensional plot. The A-scan technique uses a single transducer to scan along a line in the body, and the echoes are plotted as a function of time. This technique is used for measuring the distances or sizes of internal organs. The M-scan mode is used to record the motion of internal organs, as in the study of heart dysfunction. Greater resolution is obtained in ultrasonic imaging by using higher frequencies—i.e., shorter wavelengths. A limitation of this property of waves is that higher frequencies tend to be much more strongly absorbed.

      Because it is nonionizing, ultrasound has become one of the staples of obstetric (obstetrics and gynecology) diagnosis. During the process of drawing amniotic fluid in testing for birth defects, ultrasonic imaging is used to guide the needle and thus avoid damage to the fetus or surrounding tissue. Ultrasonic imaging of the fetus can be used to determine the date of conception, to identify multiple births, and to diagnose abnormalities in the development of the fetus.

      Ultrasonic Doppler techniques have become very important in diagnosing problems in blood flow. In one technique, a three-megahertz ultrasonic beam is reflected off typical oncoming arterial blood with a Doppler shift of a few kilohertz—a frequency difference that can be heard directly by a physician. Using this technique, it is possible to monitor the heartbeat of a fetus long before a stethoscope can pick up the sound. Arterial diseases (artery) such as arteriosclerosis can also be diagnosed, and the healing of arteries can be monitored following surgery. A combination of B-scan imaging and Doppler imaging, known as duplex scanning, can identify arteries and immediately measure their blood flow; this has been extensively used to diagnose heart valve defects.

      Using ultrasound with frequencies up to 2,000 megahertz, which has a wavelength of 0.75 micrometre in soft tissues (as compared with a wavelength of about 0.55 micrometre for light), ultrasonic microscopes have been developed that rival light microscopes in their resolution. The distinct advantage of ultrasonic microscopes lies in their ability to distinguish various parts of a cell by their viscosity. Also, because they require no artificial contrast mediums, which kill the cells, acoustic microscopy can study actual living cells.

Therapy (therapeutics) and surgery
      Because ultrasound is a mechanical vibration and can be well focused at high frequencies, it can be used to create internal heating of localized tissue without harmful effects on nearby tissue. This technique can be employed to relieve pains in joints, particularly in the back and shoulder. Also, research is now being carried out in the treatment of certain types of cancer by local heating, since focusing intense ultrasonic waves can heat the area of a tumour while not significantly affecting surrounding tissue.

      Trackless surgery—that is, surgery that does not require an incision or track from the skin to the affected area—has been developed for several conditions. Focused ultrasound has been used for the treatment of Parkinson's disease (Parkinson disease) by creating brain lesions in areas that are inaccessible to traditional surgery. A common application of this technique is the destruction of kidney stones (kidney stone) with shock waves formed by bursts of focused ultrasound. In some cases, a device called an ultrasonic lithotripter focuses the ultrasound with the help of X-ray guidance, but a more common technique for destruction of kidney stones, known as endoscopic ultrasonic disintegration, uses a small metal rod inserted through the skin to deliver ultrasound in the 22- to 30-kilohertz frequency region.

      The term infrasonics refers to waves of a frequency below the range of human hearing—i.e., below about 20 hertz. Such waves occur in nature in earthquakes, waterfalls, ocean waves, volcanoes, and a variety of atmospheric phenomena such as wind, thunder, and weather patterns. Calculating the motion of these waves and predicting the weather using these calculations, among other information, is one of the great challenges for modern high-speed computers.

       Frequency range of hearing for humans and selected animalsAircraft, automobiles, or other rapidly moving objects, as well as air handlers and blowers in buildings, also produce substantial amounts of infrasonic radiation. Studies have shown that many people experience adverse reactions to large intensities of infrasonic frequencies, developing headaches, nausea, blurred vision, and dizziness. On the other hand, a number of animals are sensitive to infrasonic frequencies, as indicated in the Table (Frequency range of hearing for humans and selected animals). It is believed by many zoologists that this sensitivity in animals such as elephants (elephant) may be helpful in providing them with early warning of earthquakes and weather disturbances. It has been suggested that the sensitivity of birds (bird) to infrasound aids their navigation and even affects their migration.

      One of the most important examples of infrasonic waves in nature is in earthquakes (earthquake). Three principal types of earthquake wave exist: the S-wave, a transverse body wave; the P-wave, a longitudinal body wave; and the L-wave, which propagates along the boundary of stratified mediums. L-waves, which are of great importance in earthquake engineering, propagate in a similar way to water waves, at low velocities that are dependent on frequency. S-waves are transverse body waves and thus can only be propagated within solid bodies such as rocks. P-waves are longitudinal waves similar to sound waves; they propagate at the speed of sound and have large ranges.

      When P-waves propagating from the epicentre of an earthquake reach the surface of the Earth, they are converted into L-waves, which may then damage surface structures. The great range of P-waves makes them useful in identifying earthquakes from observation points a great distance from the epicentre. In many cases, the most severe shock from an earthquake is preceded by smaller shocks, which provide advance warning of the greater shock to come. Underground nuclear explosions also produce P-waves, allowing them to be monitored from any point in the world if they are of sufficient intensity.

      The reflection of man-made seismic shocks has helped to identify possible locations of oil (petroleum) and natural-gas (natural gas) sources. Distinctive rock formations in which these minerals are likely to be found can be identified by sonic ranging, primarily at infrasonic frequencies.

Environmental noise
      Many forms of noise in the urban environment, including traffic and airplane noise, industrial noise, and noise from electronically amplified music performed at high audio levels in confined rooms, may contribute to hearing damage. Even when the noise level in a working environment may not be dangerous, it can be distracting for those who work in that environment and therefore lead to reduced work production. In addition to the sound level, the character of the noise may be important. Identifiable noises, such as talking or music, may be more distracting for many people than noise produced by air handlers, small motors, or traffic.

      Low levels of noise may be overcome using additional absorbing material, such as heavy drapery or sound-absorbent tiles in enclosed rooms. Where low levels of identifiable noise may be distracting, or where privacy of conversations in adjacent offices and reception areas may be important, the undesirable sounds may be masked. A small white-noise source such as static or rushing air, placed in the room, can mask the sounds of conversation from adjacent rooms without being offensive or dangerous to the ears of people working nearby. This type of device is often used in offices of doctors and other professionals. Another technique for reducing personal noise level is through the use of hearing protectors, which are held over the ears in the same manner as an earmuff. By using commercially available earmuff-type hearing protectors, a decrease in sound level can be attained ranging typically from about 10 decibels at 100 hertz to over 30 decibels for frequencies above 1,000 hertz.

       Daily maximum noise exposure permitted by the U.S. Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970 Daily maximum noise exposure permitted by the U.S. Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970Environmental and industrial noise (labour law) is regulated in the United States under the Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970 and the Noise Control Act of 1972. Under these acts, the Occupational Safety and Health Administration has set up industrial noise criteria in order to provide limits on the intensity of sound exposure and on the time duration for which that intensity may be allowed. Maximum daily exposure to noise at various levels is given in the Table (Daily maximum noise exposure permitted by the U.S. Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970). If an individual is exposed to various levels of noise for different time intervals during the day, the total exposure or dose (D) of noise is obtained from the relation

D = (C1/T1) + (C2/T2) + (C3/T3) +…,
where C is the actual time of exposure and T is the allowable time of exposure at any level in the Table (Daily maximum noise exposure permitted by the U.S. Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970). Using this formula, the maximum allowable daily noise dose will be 1, and any daily exposure over 1 is unacceptable.

      Criteria for indoor noise are summarized in three sets of specifications that have been derived by collecting subjective judgments from a large sampling of people in a variety of specific situations. These have developed into the noise criteria (NC) and preferred noise criteria (PNC) curves, which provide limits on the level of noise introduced into the environment. The NC curves, developed in 1957, aim to provide a comfortable working or living environment by specifying the maximum allowable level of noise in octave bands over the entire audio spectrum. The complete set of 11 curves specifies noise criteria for a broad range of situations. The PNC curves, developed in 1971, add limits on low-frequency rumble and high-frequency hiss; hence, they are preferred over the older NC standard. Summarized in the curves shown in the Figure, these criteria provide design goals for noise levels for a variety of different purposes. Part of the specification of a work or living environment is the appropriate PNC curve; in the event that the sound level exceeds PNC limits, sound-absorptive materials can be introduced into the environment as necessary to meet the appropriate standards.

      Outdoor noise limits are also important for human comfort. Standard house construction will provide some shielding from external sounds if the house meets minimum standards of construction and if the outside noise level falls within acceptable limits. These limits are generally specified for particular periods of the day—for example, during daylight hours, during evening hours, and at night during sleeping hours. Because of refraction in the atmosphere owing to the nighttime temperature inversion, relatively loud sounds can be introduced into an area from a rather distant highway (roads and highways), airport, or railroad. One interesting technique for control of highway noise is the erection of noise barriers alongside the highway, separating the highway from adjacent residential areas. The effectiveness of such barriers is limited by the diffraction of sound, which is greater at the lower frequencies that often predominate in road noise, especially from large vehicles. In order to be effective, they must be as close as possible to either the source or the observer of the noise (preferably to the source), thus maximizing the diffraction that would be necessary for the sound to reach the observer. Another requirement for this type of barrier is that it must also limit the amount of transmitted sound in order to bring about significant noise reduction.

Richard E. Berg

Additional Reading

Ultrasonics
Classic works in the field of ultrasonics include Basil Brown and John E. Goodman, High-Intensity Ultrasonics: Industrial Applications (1965); Robert T. Beyer and Stephen V. Letcher, Physical Ultrasonics (1969); Dale Ensminger, Ultrasonics: Fundamentals, Technology, Applications, 2nd ed., rev. and expanded (1988); and Robert T. Beyer, Nonlinear Acoustics (1974). P.N.T. Wells, Biomedical Ultrasonics (1977), provides a summary of biomedical applications through the time of publication. Another survey of developments of the period is Robert T. Beyer, “A New Wave of Acoustics,” Physics Today, 34(11):145–157 (November 1981). James R. Matthews (ed.) Acoustic Emission (1983), describes in great detail modern techniques for testing materials with ultrasonic emissions. A variety of applications are studied in A.P. Cracknell, Ultrasonics (1980); Kenneth S. Suslick (ed.), Ultrasound: Its Chemical, Physical, and Biological Effects (1988); and D. Stansfield, Underwater Electroacoustic Transducers: A Handbook for Users and Designers (1990). B.P. Hildebrand and B.B. Brenden, An Introduction to Acoustical Holography (1972), surveys holographic techniques and the basis for later development in medical imaging. Harvey Feigenbaum, Echocardiography, 4th ed. (1986), discusses ultrasonic cardiography. Russel K. Hobbie (ed.), Medical Physics: Selected Reprints (1986), collects articles on advances in medical ultrasonics. Information on later research activity in the field is found in B.R. McAvoy (ed.), IEEE 1990 Ultrasonics Symposium: Proceedings, 3 vol. (1989); and in the materials published in the serial Physical Acoustics: Principles and Methods (irregular), ed. by Warren P. Mason and R.N. Thurston. Periodicals include Ultrasonics (quarterly); IEEE Transactions on Ultrasonics, Ferroelectrics, and Frequency Control (bimonthly), covering topics of ongoing scientific conferences in all areas of sound and ultrasonics; and JAMA: Journal of the American Medical Association (weekly), for medical applications of ultrasound.

Infrasonics
Infrasonic waves in nature are studied in Earl E. Gossard and William H. Hooke, Waves in the Atmosphere: Atmospheric Infrasound and Gravity Waves: Their Generation and Propagation (1975). Experimental infrasonic techniques are discussed in A.F. Yakushova, Geology with the Elements of Geomorphology (1986; originally published in Russian, 2nd rev. ed., 1983); and Bruce A. Bolt (ed.), Earthquakes and Volcanoes: Readings from Scientific American (1980).

Environmental noise
U.S. law and public policy regarding environmental noise are described in United States Office of Noise Abatement and Control, Public Health and Welfare Criteria for Noise (1973). A wealth of data is accumulated in Cyril M. Harris (ed.), Handbook of Noise Control, 2nd ed. (1979). Noise control applications are examined in P.O.A.L. Davies, M. Heckl, and G.L. Koopman, Noise Generation and Control in Mechanical Engineering (1982); Lewis H. Bell et al., Industrial Noise Control: Fundamentals and Applications (1982); and John E.K. Foreman, Sound Analysis and Noise Control (1990).Richard E. Berg

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Universalium. 2010.

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