turpentine

turpentine
turpentinic /terr'peuhn tin"ik/, turpentinous /terr'peuhn tin"euhs, -tuy"neuhs/, turpentiny /terr"peuhn tuy'nee/, adj.
/terr"peuhn tuyn'/, n., v., turpentined, turpentining.
n.
1. any of various oleoresins derived from coniferous trees, esp. the longleaf pine, Pinus palustris, and yielding a volatile oil and a resin when distilled.
2. Also called Chian turpentine. an oleoresin exuded by the terebinth, Pistacia terebinthus.
v.t.
4. to treat with turpentine; apply turpentine to.
5. to gather or take crude turpentine from (trees).
[1275-1325; late ME, alter. of ME ter(e)bentyn(e) < ML ter(e)bentina, for L terebinthina, n. use of fem. of terebinthinus of the turpentine tree, equiv. to terebinth(us) turpentine tree ( < Gk terébinthos) + -inus -INE1]

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Any resinous exudate or extract from conifers, especially pines; now also commonly a term for its volatile fraction, oil (or spirits) of turpentine.

Semifluid mixtures of organic compounds consisting of resins dissolved in a volatile oil, turpentines can be distilled (see distillation) into the volatile oil of turpentine and the nonvolatile rosin. The oil, a mixture of monoterpenes (see isoprenoid), chiefly pinene, is a colourless, odorous, flammable liquid that does not mix with water but is a good solvent for many substances. Oil of turpentine is favoured over petroleum solvents as an oil-paint thinner, varnish solvent, and brush cleaner. Its chief use is now as a raw material for resins, insecticides, oil additives, and synthetic pine oil and camphor and as a solvent.

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▪ plant resin
      the resinous exudate or extract obtained from coniferous trees, particularly those of the genus Pinus. Turpentines are semifluid substances consisting of resins dissolved in a volatile oil; this mixture is separable by various distillation techniques into a volatile portion called oil (or spirit) of turpentine and a nonvolatile portion called rosin. Although the term turpentine originally referred to the whole oleoresinous exudate, it now commonly refers to its volatile turpentine fraction only, which has various uses in industry and the visual arts.

      Oil of turpentine is a colourless, oily, odorous, flammable, water-immiscible liquid with a hot, disagreeable taste. It is a good solvent for sulphur, phosphorus, resins, waxes, oils, and natural rubber. It hardens upon exposure to air. Chemically, oil of turpentine is a mixture of cyclic monoterpene hydrocarbons, the predominant constituent being pinene.

      Formerly, the largest use for turpentine oil was as a paint and varnish solvent. Oil painters generally prefer it as a paint thinner and brush cleaner to petroleum solvents (mineral spirits), even though the latter are less expensive. But the largest use of turpentine oil is now in the chemical industry, as a raw material in the synthesis of resins, insecticides, oil additives, and synthetic pine oil and camphor. Turpentine oil is also used as a rubber solvent in the manufacture of plastics.

      Turpentine oil is generally produced in countries that have vast tracts of pine trees. The principal European turpentines are derived from the cluster pine (P. pinaster) and the Scotch pine (P. sylvestris), while the main sources of turpentine in the United States are the longleaf pine (P. palustris) and the slash pine (P. caribaea).

      Turpentine oil is classified according to the way it is produced. Sulfate turpentine, used widely in the chemicals industry, is obtained as a by-product of the kraft, or sulfate, process of cooking wood pulp in the course of the manufacture of kraft paper. Wood turpentine is obtained by the steam distillation of dead, shredded bits of pine wood, while gum turpentine results from the distillation of the exudate of the living pine tree obtained by tapping. Crude turpentine obtained from the living pine by tapping typically contains 65 percent gum rosin and 18 percent gum turpentine.

      Various other oleoresins (solutions of resins dispersed in essential oils) are known as turpentines. Venice turpentine, for example, is a pale green, viscous liquid that is collected from the larch (Larix decidua, or L. europea). It is used for lithographic work and in sealing wax and varnishes. See also balsam; Canada balsam.

      Crude turpentine is one of a group of pine-tree derivatives that are known as naval stores (q.v.).

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Universalium. 2010.

См. также в других словарях:

  • Turpentine — Tur pen*tine, n. [F. t[ e]r[ e]bentine, OF. also turbentine; cf. Pr. terebentina, terbentina, It. terebentina, trementina; fr. L. terebinthinus of the turpentine tree, from terebinthus the turpentine tree. Gr. ?, ?. See {Terebinth}.] A semifluid… …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • turpentine — [tʉr′pən tīn΄] n. [ME turpentyne < OFr terbentine < L terebinthinus, of the turpentine tree < terebinthus: see TEREBINTH] 1. the brownish yellow, sticky, semifluid oleoresin exuding from the terebinth 2. any of the various sticky, viscid …   English World dictionary

  • turpentine — ► NOUN 1) (also crude or gum turpentine) a resinous oily substance secreted by certain pines and other trees and distilled to make rosin and oil of turpentine. 2) (also oil of turpentine) a volatile pungent oil distilled from this, used in mixing …   English terms dictionary

  • turpentine — early 14c., terbentyn, from O.Fr. terebinte, from L. terebintha resina resin of the terebinth tree, from Gk. rhetine terebinthe, from fem. of terebinthos, earlier terminthos terebinth tree, probably from a non I.E. language. By 16c. applied… …   Etymology dictionary

  • Turpentine — For other uses, see Turpentine (disambiguation). Turpentine (also called spirit of turpentine, oil of turpentine, and wood turpentine) is a fluid obtained by the distillation of resin obtained from trees, mainly pine trees. It is composed of… …   Wikipedia

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  • turpentine — I. noun Etymology: Middle English terbentyne, turpentyne, from Anglo French & Medieval Latin; Anglo French terebentine, from Medieval Latin terbentina, from Latin terebinthina, feminine of terebinthinus of terebinth, from terebinthus terebinth,… …   New Collegiate Dictionary

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  • turpentine —    A high quality oil paint thinner and solvent. It is produced by distilling into a volatile pungent oil the resin secreted by any of several types of coniferous trees. There are several grades of turpentine, the best usually called pure gum… …   Glossary of Art Terms

  • turpentine — /ˈtɜpəntaɪn / (say terpuhntuyn) noun 1. an oleoresin exuding from the terebinth, Pistacia terebinthus. 2. any of various oleoresins derived from coniferous trees, especially the longleaf pine, Pinus palustris, and yielding a volatile oil and a… …   Australian English dictionary


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