/toor"in, tyoor"-, too rin", tyoo-/, n.a city in NW Italy, on the Po: capital of the Kingdom of Italy 1860-65. 1,188,689. Italian, Torino.
* * *Located on the Po River, it was founded by the Taurini. It was partly destroyed by Hannibal in 218 BC. It was made a Roman military colony under Emperor Augustus. A part of the Lombard duchy in the 6th century AD, it became the seat of government under Charlemagne (742–814). It passed to the house of Savoy in 1046. The capital of the kingdom of Sardinia in 1720, Turin was occupied by the French during the Napoleonic Wars. The political and intellectual centre of the Risorgimento movement, it served as the first capital of united Italy (1861–65). During World War II Turin sustained heavy damage from Allied air raids but was rebuilt. It is the focus of Italy's automotive industry and an international fashion centre. The Shroud of Turin has been housed in the 15th-century cathedral there since the 16th century.
* * *▪ Italycity, capital of Torino provincia and of Piemonte (Piedmont) regione, northwestern Italy. It is located on the Po River near its junction with the Sangone, Dora Riparia, and Stura di Lanzo rivers.The original settlement of Taurisia, founded by the Taurini, was partly destroyed by the Carthaginian invader Hannibal in 218 BC. It later became a Roman military colony, known successively as Julia Taurinorum and Augusta Taurinorum, rebuilt by the emperor Augustus in the form of an enclosed rectangle divided into 72 blocks (insulae). The remains of the walls and the Palatine Gate and the Palatine Towers are still visible.Dominated by barbarians after the decline of Rome in the 4th century, the city became part of the Lombard kingdom and then of the Frankish empire. It was linked to Savoy in 1046 by the marriage of Countess Adelaide to Count Odo of Savoy, and it recognized the supremacy of Savoy in 1280 after an intervening period of semi-independence and conflict. Occupied by the French from 1536 to 1562, Turin became the capital of the duchy of Savoy in 1563. It was besieged in 1640 and 1706 (during the War of the Spanish Succession) by the French, who were defeated by Eugene of Savoy in 1706, and it was occupied again by the French during the Napoleonic Wars.The city became the capital of the kingdom of Sardinia in 1720 and in the 19th century became the political and intellectual centre of the Risorgimento, the movement for Italian political unification. It served as the first capital of a united Italy from 1861 to 1865. Turin sustained heavy air-raid damage during World War II.Having been a bishopric since about 415 and an archbishopric since 1510, Turin is rich in ecclesiastical architecture. Churches include La Consolata, which underwent a number of alterations, most notably by the Baroque architect Guarino Guarini (Guarini, Guarino) in the late 1600s; the Waldensian Church (1853), the first Protestant church in Turin; and the nearby basilica of Superga (1717–31), long the royal burial church. The Renaissance-style cathedral of San Giovanni Battista (1498), with the brilliantly original Santa Sindone Chapel (1694) by Guarini, houses the Shroud of Turin (Turin, Shroud of), a piece of linen long thought to be the burial garment of Jesus. The cathedral and chapel were severely damaged by a fire in April 1997 and underwent major restoration work.A ducal and royal city for centuries, Turin has many fine palaces. The Madama Palace, begun in the 13th century, owes its name to the resident widows of the 17th-century dukes of Savoy. Used by the Sardinian Senate in 1848–60 and by the Italian Senate in 1861–64, it now houses the Museum of Ancient Arts. The Carignano Palace (1679), the birthplace (1820) of King Victor Emmanuel II and once the meeting place of the Sardinian chamber of deputies and of the first Italian parliament, now houses the National Museum of the Italian Risorgimento. The Royal Palace (1646–58) houses the Royal Armoury, with one of the finest collections of arms in Europe. The Academy of Science (1678), formerly a Jesuit college, now houses the Museum of Antiquities, the Egyptian Museum, and the Sabauda Gallery. Other secular structures include the remains of the old citadel; the Mole Antonelliana, begun in 1863 as a synagogue and later completed by the city; the modern Turin Exhibition Buildings and Gallery of Modern Art; and numerous public monuments to significant figures in Turin's past. Other museums display collections on artillery, automobiles, mountains, cinema, and natural history, zoology, paleontology, and mineralogy. There are also several fine libraries.The University of Turin (Turin, University of) was founded in 1404. Other educational institutions include the Turin Polytechnic (1859), the Gallery of the Albertina Academy (1652), the Giuseppe Verdi State Musical Conservatory (1867), the Institute of Business and Industrial Organization Studies (1935), and the University Institute of European Studies (1952).Situated on a broad, fertile plain east of the Alps, Turin is one of Italy's most important industrial and communications centres. It is a major road and rail junction and has an international airport. Preeminent in Italy's automotive industry, Turin has long been associated with Fiat (Fiat SpA), which is headquartered there, and is home to Fiat and Lancia plants that produce much of the country's output of automobiles. In the late 20th century, however, as the automobile industry declined, the city looked to diversify its economy, and tourism and the manufacture of high-technology products have become increasingly significant. Airplane, ball-bearing, rubber, and paper industries are also important, as are tanning and leatherworking, and typography and lithography. There are metallurgical, chemical, plastics, and electrotechnical industries. Chocolate and wines (especially vermouth) are notable products. In 1999 Turin was selected to host the 2006 Winter Olympics. Pop. (2004 est.) 867,857.
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Turín — Bandera … Wikipedia Español
Turin — Turin … Deutsch Wikipedia
TURIN — (It. Torino), city on the Po River, N.W. Italy. Turin was the capital of the duchy of Savoy and later of the kingdom of Sardinia; it is now the capital of Piedmont province. The presence of Jews in Turin was recorded by Bishop Maximus of Turin in … Encyclopedia of Judaism
Turin — • The chief town of a civil province in Piedmont and was formerly the capital of the Duchy of Savoy and of the Kingdom of Sardinia Catholic Encyclopedia. Kevin Knight. 2006. Turin Turin … Catholic encyclopedia
TURIN — TURI La capitale du Piémont est située au confluent du Pô et de la Doire Ripaire, dans une région où convergent les multiples vallées issues des Alpes occidentales et dont les communications avec les pays limitrophes de l’Italie (par de grands… … Encyclopédie Universelle
Turin — Turin, NY U.S. village in New York Population (2000): 263 Housing Units (2000): 134 Land area (2000): 1.022485 sq. miles (2.648224 sq. km) Water area (2000): 0.000000 sq. miles (0.000000 sq. km) Total area (2000): 1.022485 sq. miles (2.648224 sq … StarDict's U.S. Gazetteer Places
Turīn  — Turīn (ital. Torīno, hierzu der Stadtplan), Hauptstadt der gleichnamigen ital. Provinz (s. oben), bis 1860 Hauptstadt des Königreichs Sardinien und 1861–65 des Königreichs Italien, liegt unter 45°4 nördl. Br. und 7°42 östl. L., 239 m ü. M., in… … Meyers Großes Konversations-Lexikon
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Turin, GA — U.S. town in Georgia Population (2000): 165 Housing Units (2000): 68 Land area (2000): 1.254953 sq. miles (3.250312 sq. km) Water area (2000): 0.000000 sq. miles (0.000000 sq. km) Total area (2000): 1.254953 sq. miles (3.250312 sq. km) FIPS code … StarDict's U.S. Gazetteer Places
Turin, IA — U.S. city in Iowa Population (2000): 75 Housing Units (2000): 39 Land area (2000): 0.084044 sq. miles (0.217673 sq. km) Water area (2000): 0.000000 sq. miles (0.000000 sq. km) Total area (2000): 0.084044 sq. miles (0.217673 sq. km) FIPS code:… … StarDict's U.S. Gazetteer Places
Turin, NY — U.S. village in New York Population (2000): 263 Housing Units (2000): 134 Land area (2000): 1.022485 sq. miles (2.648224 sq. km) Water area (2000): 0.000000 sq. miles (0.000000 sq. km) Total area (2000): 1.022485 sq. miles (2.648224 sq. km) FIPS… … StarDict's U.S. Gazetteer Places