tornadic /tawr nad"ik, -nay"dik/, adj.tornadolike, adj.
/tawr nay"doh/, n., pl. tornadoes, tornados.
1. a localized, violently destructive windstorm occurring over land, esp. in the Middle West, and characterized by a long, funnel-shaped cloud extending toward the ground and made visible by condensation and debris. Cf. waterspout (def. 3).
2. a violent squall or whirlwind of small extent, as one of those occurring during the summer on the west coast of Africa.
3. a violent outburst, as of emotion or activity.
4. (cap.) Mil. a supersonic, two-seat, multipurpose military aircraft produced jointly by West Germany, Britain, and Italy and capable of flying in darkness and bad weather.
[1550-60; appar. by metathesis < Sp tronada thunderstorm, n. use of fem. of tronado, ptp. of tronar < L tonare to thunder; r. 16th-century ternado, with unexplained e]

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Violent, low-pressure storm, relatively small in diameter but with very rapidly rotating winds and an intense updraft near the centre.

The relatively low pressure at the centre of a tornado's funnel-like vortex causes cooling and condensation, making the storm visible as a revolving column of cloud, called the funnel. Tornadoes normally travel at 30–40 mph (50–65 kph). The winds around the vortex average nearly 300 mph (500 kph) and have been known to reach 500 mph (800 kph). Tornadoes often occur in groups.

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  a small-diameter column of violently rotating air developed within a convective cloud and in contact with the ground. Tornadoes occur most often in association with thunderstorms (thunderstorm) during the spring and summer in the mid-latitudes of both the Northern and Southern Hemispheres. These whirling atmospheric vortices can generate the strongest winds known on Earth: wind speeds in the range of 500 km (300 miles) per hour have been estimated. When winds of this magnitude strike a populated area, they can cause fantastic destruction and great loss of life, mainly through injuries from flying debris and collapsing structures. Most tornadoes, however, are comparatively weak events that occur in sparsely populated areas and cause minor damage.

       Fujita Scale of Tornado IntensityThis article describes tornado occurrence and formation as products of instability within the Earth's air masses and wind systems. Wind speeds and destructiveness are discussed with special reference to the Fujita Scale (Fujita Scale of Tornado Intensity) of tornado intensity. For short, descriptive entries on closely related phenomena not covered in this article, see waterspout, whirlwind, and fire storm.

Tornado occurrence and distribution

Global occurrence
      Tornadoes have been reported on all continents except Antarctica. They are most common on continents in the mid-latitudes (between 20° and 60° N and S), where they are frequently associated with thunderstorms that develop in regions where cold polar air meets warm tropical air.

      Calculating which country has the most tornadoes per year depends on how this measurement is defined. The United Kingdom has the most tornadoes per land size, most of them weak. On average, about 33 tornadoes are reported annually there. In absolute numbers, the United States has the most tornadoes by far (more than 1,000 per year have been reported every year since 1990). It also has the most violent tornadoes (about 10 to 20 per year). Tornadoes of this intensity are very infrequent outside of the United States. Canada reports the second largest number of tornadoes (about 80 to 100 annually). Russia may have many tornadoes, but reports are not available to quantify their occurrence. About 20 tornadoes are reported in Australia each year, though the actual number is likely much higher. Many storms occur in uninhabited areas, and so any tornadoes that they produce are undocumented.

      Records of tornado occurrences are fragmentary for many areas, making estimates of global tornado frequency difficult. Insurance records show that tornadoes have caused significant losses in Europe, India, Japan, South Africa, and Australia. Rare but deadly tornadoes have occurred in many other countries, including Bangladesh, China, and Argentina. There are few tornado reports from either the Arctic or the equatorial tropics.

      In the United Kingdom almost all reported tornadoes are associated with vigorous convection occurring in advance of and along a cold frontal boundary. Large temperature differences are associated with early winter cold fronts that move rapidly across the country from the north and west, at times spawning widespread outbreaks of small tornadoes. For example, the passage of a very strong frontal boundary across the United Kingdom on November 23, 1981, produced 105 documented tornadoes. Similar phenomena occur in other European countries such as France and Belgium.

      Most Southern Hemisphere tornadoes occur in Australia. Many reports come from New South Wales, where there were 173 reported tornadoes from 1901 to 1966. In addition, South Africa and Argentina both reported 191 tornadoes from 1930 to 1979. Because tornado formation is closely tied to the speed and directional shear of the wind with height, tornadoes in the Southern Hemisphere almost exclusively rotate clockwise, opposite to the rotation of their Northern Hemisphere counterparts.

Occurrence in the United States
Reported events
 Though tornadoes occur in every state, they are most frequent and attain the highest intensities in the central portion of the United States. Texas has the most reported tornadoes each year, about 125 on average for the years 1953–91; Florida, with almost 10 tornadoes per 10,000 square miles per year, has the most per area. However, most Florida tornadoes are very weak and affect extremely small areas.

      From 1916 through 1998, about 45,000 tornadoes were documented in the United States. From 1916 to 1953, approximately 158 tornadoes were reported per year. After 1953, the beginning of the “modern period” of tornado documentation, the number of reports rose to more than 800 per year. (The modern period is considered to have begun in 1953 because this was the first full year in which the U.S. Weather Bureau issued tornado watches—that is, bulletins reporting that a tornado might be imminent.) The increased number of tornadoes reported was due to improvements in observing and recording (largely because of the establishment of a network of volunteer tornado “spotters”), which allowed a greater number of weak events to be recognized. During the interval from 1953 to 1998, there was an average of 169 “tornado days” (days on which one or more tornadoes were reported) per year. However, the early years of the modern period, with their relatively fewer reports, bias these averages. If only the 15 years 1984 through 1998 were considered, the average number of tornadoes per year would be 1,025, occurring on 173 tornado days per year. These higher numbers are credited to additional improvements in tornado reporting.

Geographic distribution
 When the number of tornado occurrences, their intensity, and the area they affect are considered, the centre of tornado activity is unquestionably seen to exist in the western portions of the southern Great Plains. The region of maximum tornado frequency, rightfully called Tornado Alley, extends from west Texas northeast through the western and central portions of Oklahoma and Kansas and across most of Nebraska.

      Another area of frequent tornado occurrence is found across eastern Iowa, Illinois, Indiana, western Ohio, the southern portions of Wisconsin and Michigan, and the northern part of Kentucky. While this area experiences fewer tornadoes than does Tornado Alley, it has been struck by some of the strongest known tornadoes and has been the site of several large tornado outbreaks (that is, the occurrence of multiple tornadoes from the same weather system). The Gulf states (from east Texas to central Florida) have many weak tornadoes and have had outbreaks. The Gulf states also experience many tornadoes associated with hurricanes.

Seasonal patterns
 While most tornadoes develop in the spring and summer, tornadoes have occurred every day of the year. Several days have had many occurrences, reflecting large regional and national outbreaks. The distribution of reported tornadoes by month for the period 1916 through 1990 (see the graph—>) shows that about 74 percent of all tornadoes are reported from March through July. Peak months are April (14 percent), May (22 percent), and June (20 percent). December and January are the months of lowest activity.

      The main concentration of tornado activity migrates across the central portion of the United States in a seasonal cycle. Toward the end of winter (late February), the centre of tornado activity lies over the central Gulf states. At this time, southward-moving cold air reaches the southern limit of its expansion and encroaches on the Gulf Coast. As spring progresses, the days grow longer and more solar energy is intercepted. Land temperatures rise, and warm, moist air from the Gulf of Mexico progressively drives back the cold air. The centre of activity then moves eastward to the southeastern Atlantic states, with tornado frequency peaking there in April.

      As spring advances and gives way to summer, the centre of tornado activity gradually shifts westward and then northward. It moves across the southern Plains in May and June and then into the northern Plains and the Great Lakes states by early summer. Late summer through early fall (autumn) is usually a relatively quiet time because the temperature and moisture contrasts across the boundary between the two air masses are weak. An extension of the Bermuda high (a centre of high atmospheric pressure that develops over the Atlantic Ocean) dominates the southeastern third of the United States, and, while thunderstorms occur frequently in the warm, moist air, they seldom become severe. In late fall the days grow shorter, the temperature and moisture contrast intensifies again, and the centre of tornado activity retreats south toward the Gulf, completing the annual cycle.

      Superimposed on this general pattern are large year-to-year variations. These arise because almost all tornado-producing storms are embedded within episodic northward surges of warm, moist air. The distribution of tornadoes in any one year thus reflects the weather patterns—especially the tracks followed by the synoptic-scale low-pressure centres—prevailing in that year.

      Regional factors must also be taken into account. Along the Gulf Coast, tornadoes can be produced by thunderstorms that come ashore as a hurricane makes landfall. In a few cases, many tornadoes will be produced. For example, on September 20, 1967, thunderstorms in Hurricane Beulah produced 115 tornadoes in south Texas, the second largest recorded outbreak in history.

Diurnal patterns
      Although tornadoes can occur at all times of the day, they are most frequent from mid-afternoon to early evening. In the central United States, where most tornadoes occur, tornado frequency is highest between 5:00 and 6:00 PM. Weak and strong tornadoes occur most frequently in this same hour. Violent tornado occurrences peak an hour later, between 6:00 and 7:00 PM. Tornado occurrences peak in the late afternoon to early evening because there must be sufficient time for the Sun strongly to heat the ground and the surface layer of the atmosphere, thus inducing and sustaining severe thunderstorms. Few reports (roughly 1 percent) are from between 5:00 and 6:00 AM, the period just around sunrise when the atmosphere is often very stable.

Tornado outbreaks
 A tornado outbreak is the occurrence of several tornadoes over a region, usually due to thunderstorms embedded in the same synoptic-scale weather system. Outbreaks are classified according to the number of tornadoes reported: small (6 to 9 tornadoes), medium (10 to 19), and large (more than 20 tornadoes). Outbreaks are also classified according to the area affected: in local outbreaks, one or only a portion of one state is affected; in regional outbreaks, two or three states contain all or almost all the tornadoes; in national outbreaks, tornadoes are reported in many states.

      On most tornado days, only a relatively small region has the essential conditions juxtaposed in just the right way to foster tornado development. This alignment usually lasts for only a small portion of an afternoon. As a consequence, only the two or three storms that form in this region are likely to produce tornadoes. Most of these vortices are weak, but one or more may be strong. Most occur in the space of one to two hours in the middle to late afternoon. Situations like this give rise to small local outbreaks several times per year.

      Most dangerous are national outbreaks. Perhaps once every 10 to 15 years, the synoptic-scale weather pattern produces conditions favourable to the production of strong storms over a large portion of the central United States. The number of conditions required to align over this large an area usually limits the occurrence of such widespread outbreaks to March and April. Many of the tornadoes are likely to be strong or violent. The largest national tornado outbreak was the Super Outbreak (Super Outbreak of 1974) of April 3–4, 1974, which was credited with producing 148 tornadoes in the central and southern United States (though 4 of these were later reclassified as downbursts by the meteorologist T. Theodore Fujita (Fujita, T. Theodore)). The second largest was the April 11–12, 1965, Palm Sunday Outbreak (Palm Sunday tornado outbreak of 1965).

Prediction and detection of tornadoes
 The first step in predicting the likely occurrence of tornadoes involves identifying regions where conditions are favourable to the development of strong thunderstorms (thunderstorm). Essential ingredients for the occurrence of such storms are cool, dry air at middle levels in the troposphere superimposed over a layer of moist, conditionally unstable air near the surface.

      Conditions commonly leading to thunderstorm development occur along the warm side of the boundary line, or front, that separates cold, dry air from warm, moist air. The degree of instability present in the atmosphere is approximated by the contrasts in temperature and moisture across the frontal boundary that divides the two air masses. For a storm to generate tornadoes, other factors must be present. The most important of these is a veering wind profile (that is, a progressive shifting of the wind, clockwise in the Northern Hemisphere, counterclockwise in the Southern Hemisphere, with increasing height) at low and middle levels, along with strong winds at high levels. Both of these wind actions are necessary to provide the required spin in the air that may eventually culminate in a tornado. A veering wind profile can be provided by the same strong temperature contrasts powering the thunderstorm, and high-altitude winds can be provided by the jet stream, the thin ribbon of high-speed air found in the upper half of the troposphere.

      For the generation of a tornado, the diffuse spin must be concentrated into a small area as an evolving storm goes through several distinct stages of development. The first appearance of rotation in a storm is caused by the interaction of a strong, persistent updraft (updraft and downdraft) with the winds that blow through and around the storm. Rotation intensifies as the speed of the wind increases and as its direction veers from southeast to south and then around to west (in the Northern Hemisphere) with increasing height through the lower half of the troposphere.

      Forecasters in the United States have learned to carefully monitor the wind profile in regions of instability and to estimate how temperatures and winds will evolve through the course of a day, while at the same time tracking the movement and intensity of the jet stream. With the aid of modern observing systems, such as vertically pointing radars (called wind profilers) and imaging systems on satellites that can measure the flow of water vapour through the Earth's atmosphere, forecasters can usually identify where conditions will be favourable for tornado formation one to seven hours in advance. This information is transmitted to the public as a tornado watch. A tornado warning is issued when a tornado has been spotted either visually or on a weather radar.

      Once strong thunderstorms begin to form, local offices of the National Weather Service monitor their development using imagery from satellite sensors and, most important, from radars (radar). These allow forecasters to follow the evolution of the storms and to estimate their intensity. In the past, weather surveillance radars provided information only on the intensity of rainfall within the storms. Weather forecasters then had to infer the onset of rotation within a storm's updraft from circumstantial evidence, such as when the precipitation began to curve around the updraft to produce a “hook echo,” a hook-shaped region of precipitation that flows out of the main storm and wraps around the updraft. Such inferences were highly subjective and prone to false alarms or very short-notice warnings. Today, modern weather surveillance radars not only provide information on the intensity of a storm's rainfall but also utilize the principle to sense winds within thunderstorms. Wind speeds are determined from radio waves reflected by raindrops and other particles carried along by the wind.

      Doppler radars can measure rotation in the updraft and allow forecasters to watch the formation of a mesocyclone (that is, a region of rotating air within a thunderstorm). On Doppler radar, the presence of a well-organized mesocyclone is indicated by a small region of concentrated shear in the wind. On one side of the mesocyclone the rotating winds flow toward the radar; and on the other, they move away. In some cases, the formation of the tornado core can be detected. The tornado core is a roughly cylindrical region of lower atmospheric pressure that is bounded by the maximum tangential winds (the fastest winds circulating around the centre of the tornado). The radar indication of intense concentrated rotation is called the tornado vortex signature, although this area does not always evolve into a tornado core. These improvements have allowed forecasters to increase warning times while reducing false alarms.

Death and damage
      In the period 1916 through 1998, tornadoes claimed 12,282 lives in the United States, an average of 150 deaths per year. For the period 1953 through 1998, tornadoes claimed 4,032 lives, an average of 88 deaths per year. The decrease in fatalities is due to improvements in safety awareness and severe-weather warnings. There have been wide variations in the number of deaths from one year to the next, the minimum being 15 deaths in 1986 and the maximum being 805 in 1925 (due largely to the Great Tri-State Tornado of March 18, 1925). Since the advent of improved warning systems, three years contributed disproportionately to the total number of deaths: 1953, 1965, and 1974. Of the 519 deaths in 1953, 323 were due to strong tornadoes striking three urban areas (Waco, Texas; Flint, Michigan; and Worcester, Massachusetts). The high death counts in 1965 and 1974 (301 and 366, respectively) were the result of large national tornado outbreaks—the April 11–12, 1965, Palm Sunday Outbreak and the greatest of all recorded outbreaks, the April 3–4, 1974, Super Outbreak.

      Most deaths and injuries in tornadoes result from individuals being struck by flying debris. People are sometimes injured or killed by being rolled across the ground by the high winds. Also, a few people appear to have been killed by being carried aloft and then dropped from a great height.

      Almost all of the damage caused by tornadoes can be attributed to wind-induced forces tearing structures apart. High-speed air flowing over a building's roof and around its corners produces forces that pull upward and outward, respectively. Once windows or doors on the windward side of a building break, air rushes in; this pushes outward on the remaining walls and upward on the roof from the inside, adding to the forces induced by the outside airflow. Often a building is torn apart so quickly and dramatically by these forces that it appears to explode.

      It used to be thought that many buildings “exploded” owing to the development of an extreme difference in pressure between their interiors and the outside air. The rate at which pressure changes at a point on the surface as a tornado approaches may be as great as 100 hectopascals per second (100 hectopascals are equivalent to about 10 percent of atmospheric pressure at sea level). While this is a significant drop, studies have shown that most structures are sufficiently open that, even with the high rate of pressure change associated with a rapidly moving tornado, interior pressure can adjust quickly enough to prevent an explosion. Indeed, since the area of greatly reduced pressure beneath a tornado is small compared with the area of damaging winds, it is likely that a building already will have suffered damage from the winds by the time it experiences a rapid drop in outside pressure.

Tornado safety
 Tornadoes produce extremely hazardous conditions. The main dangers are caused by extremely high winds and flying debris. Little can be done to prevent heavy damage to structures that are directly hit by a tornado, though good building practices (such as securely fastening the roof of the house to the walls and securing the walls to the foundation) can reduce damage to structures on the periphery of a tornado's circulation. Consequently, most hazard research has been focused on saving lives and reducing injuries.

      Surviving a tornado requires an understanding of the hazards and some preparation. The most important step is taking shelter. People are advised not to waste time opening windows to reduce the pressure in a house. It is a myth that sudden pressure changes associated with tornadoes cause structures to explode, and flying debris is likely to break the windows before the tornado hits anyway. The best protection in the home can be found under a sturdy table or workbench in the basement. In homes without basements (or when time is extremely limited), the recommendation is to shelter in a small interior room such as a closet or bathroom, preferably one with thick walls and no windows. A mattress can be used as additional cover, and a heavy blanket can protect against dust. It is recommended that people also shield their head and neck with their arms. People are strongly advised to avoid windows in all cases, as flying glass can cause terrible wounds.

      Many of the fatalities produced by tornadoes occur in mobile homes. Such homes are very lightly constructed and begin to come apart at relatively low wind speeds. In addition, they can easily be blown over, and they provide ample amounts of sharp-edged flying debris. Consequently, mobile homes—even ones with anchors or tie-downs—offer no shelter from even very weak tornadoes. At the first indication of possible tornadic activity, residents of mobile homes are advised to seek shelter in sturdy buildings. If no such building is available, it is better to shelter in a ditch or culvert than to remain in the home.

      If caught in the open in tornadic conditions, it is recommended to stay low to the ground (preferably in a ditch or culvert) and to hold onto a sturdy object such as a tree stump. The main danger is from being tumbled along the ground by high winds, which can in effect beat a person to death.

      It is advised that cars be abandoned as a tornado approaches and that shelter be sought in a ditch. Many tornado-related deaths have occurred in traffic jams, such as those associated with the April 10, 1979, tornado in Wichita Falls, Texas. Cars tend to be tumbled over and over by tornadoes and, in extreme cases, carried aloft and dropped from significant heights. Victims are often thrown from the tumbling car or blown out through the windows.

Tornado intensity
       Fujita Scale of Tornado IntensityTornado intensity is commonly estimated by analyzing damage to structures and then correlating it with the wind speeds required to produce such destruction. This method is essential to assigning tornadoes specific values on the Fujita Scale, or F-Scale, of tornado intensity (see the table (Fujita Scale of Tornado Intensity)), established by the Japanese-American meteorologist T. Theodore Fujita (Fujita, T. Theodore). A tornado is not assigned a value on the scale based on directly measured wind speeds, because tornadoes rarely pass near meteorological instruments. Instead, once the degree of damage to structures and vegetation has been assessed and matched with the appropriate F-Scale value, the tornado is assumed to have had maximum wind velocities within the range associated with the F-Scale value. Such a system inevitably shows it limits. For instance, a powerful tornado that does not pass near buildings or trees, and hence causes little or no damage, may be given an F-Scale value less than its true intensity.

 To classify a tornado using the F-Scale, damage occurring along the tornado's track is mapped (see the figure—>). A tornado's intensity varies along its path, with the most extreme damage usually being restricted to a small area. The overall F-Scale value assigned to a tornado represents its highest attained intensity.

      As shown in the table, the scale recognizes tornadoes of six different intensities ranging in number from F0 to F5. For many purposes, these can be grouped into three broader categories:

Weak (F0 and F1) tornadoes
 Though most tornadoes (60 to 70 percent) are in this category, they account for less than 5 percent of all deaths. A weak tornado usually has a single funnel cloud (that is, a column of water droplets) resembling an elongated, upward-opening cone with a smooth surface. The cone often does not touch the ground. In weak tornadoes, vertical wind speeds are thought to be greatest along the central axis of circulation. Many weak tornadoes appear not to extend upward far beyond the base of the parent storm.

Strong (F2 and F3) tornadoes
 About 35 percent of all tornadoes are in the strong category, and they account for about 30 percent of all deaths. Typically, a strong tornado has a broad, columnar funnel cloud. The funnel surface usually has a rough, rapidly changing texture, reflecting small-scale turbulence. Available evidence suggests that in a strong tornado, most of the rising air surges upward in a cylindrical annulus around the central axis. Vertical speeds are lower along the axis itself. Sometimes “suction vortices” can be seen within the tornado core at its point of contact with the ground. This little-understood feature appears to contain the highest wind speeds in the tornado. Strong tornadoes extend well up into the generating thunderstorm because they generally form in or around a strongly rotating updraft that may persist through the storm's full height.

Violent (F4 and F5) tornadoes
 Only a very few tornadoes (2 percent or so) reach intensities high enough to be categorized as violent; however, they account for about 65 percent of all deaths. In many cases, a violent tornado has a broad core with a diameter of 0.5 km (0.3 mile) or more. At the centre of the core, there is a relatively calm and clear eye. In the eye, nonswirling air flows down from upper levels of the thunderstorm due to low pressure in the base of the core. Upon reaching the ground, this descending inner flow turns outward and mixes with air rushing in from the inflow boundary layer (that is, the layer of air near ground level). The combined flow then spirals upward around the eye in an annulus.

      In some violent tornadoes, secondary vortices may form in the annulus, giving rise to what is termed a multiple-vortex tornado. In these secondary vortices, air spins rapidly around the axes while the vortices themselves rotate around the periphery of the central eye. Small secondary vortices are also called suction vortices when they are most evident in the corner region, the area where the wind entering the base of the tornado abruptly “turns the corner” from primarily horizontal to vertical flow. A tornado with one or more suction vortices is distinguished from a multiple-vortex tornado in that a suction vortex is at most only several hundreds of metres high, while multiple vortices extend all the way up into the cloud base of the parent thunderstorm. The fastest known surface winds occur around the tips of secondary vortices.

Physical characteristics of tornadoes

Airflow regions
 Fully developed tornadoes contain distinct regions of airflow. As is shown in the figure—>, the central axis of circulation is within the core region, a roughly cylindrical area of lower atmospheric pressure that is bounded by the maximum tangential winds (the fastest winds circulating around the centre of the tornado). If a visible funnel cloud forms, it will occur within the core region. The funnel cloud consists of a column of water droplets, commonly called the condensation funnel. In very dry conditions there may be no condensation funnel associated with a tornado.

      Responding to the reduced pressure in the central core, air near the ground located in what is referred to as the inflow boundary layer converges from all directions into a tornado's “corner region.” This region gets its name because the wind abruptly “turns the corner” from primarily horizontal to vertical flow as it enters the core region and begins its upward spiral. The corner region is very violent. It is often marked by a dust whirl or a debris fountain, where the erupting inflow carries aloft material ripped from the surface. The inflow boundary layer that feeds the corner region is usually a few tens of metres deep and has turbulent airflow. Above the boundary layer, the core is surrounded by a weakly swirling outer flow—the inflow to the storm's updraft—where radial motions (movements toward or away from the tornado's axis) are relatively small. Somewhere aloft (exactly where is not known), the core and the swirling outer flow merge with the updraft (updraft and downdraft) of the generating thunderstorm.

      Winds in a tornado are almost always cyclonic; that is, they turn counterclockwise in the Northern Hemisphere and clockwise in the Southern Hemisphere. This dominance of rotation direction is indirectly due to the Earth's rotation, which plays a role in controlling the structure of all large-scale weather systems. As is explained more fully in the section Tornado formation (tornado), most tornadoes are produced by thunderstorms, and a tornado's parent thunderstorm is in turn embedded within a larger weather system that determines the vertical shear in the winds (that is, their change in speed and direction with height across the troposphere). These systems rotate cyclonically, and a tornado's rotation comes from a concentration of the spin present in the sheared winds. However, not all tornadoes are cyclonic. About 5 percent of all observed tornadoes rotate anticyclonically—that is, they turn clockwise in the Northern Hemisphere and counterclockwise in the Southern Hemisphere.

Wind speeds and air pressures
      Measurement of wind speeds can be obtained by photogrammetry (measurements from photographs) and through remote sensing techniques using the Doppler effect. These two techniques are complementary. They provide information about tornado wind speeds by tracking objects in and around the core (the assumption being that the objects are moving with the speed of the air). Photogrammetry allows speeds across the image plane to be determined by analysis of motions of dust packets, pieces of vegetation, and building debris as recorded on film or videotape, but it cannot be used to determine wind speed toward or away from the camera. On the other hand, through processing of Doppler-shifted electromagnetic “echoes” received from raindrops and debris illuminated with pulses of radio waves (radar) or light (lidar), wind speed toward or away from the instrument can be determined.

      Under some conditions, extreme wind speeds can occur in the corner region of a tornado. The few measurements of violent tornado winds that have been made using Doppler radar and photogrammetry suggest that the maximum possible tangential wind speeds generated by tornadoes are in the range of 125 to 160 metres per second, or 450 to 575 km per hour (about 410 to 525 feet per second, or 280 to 360 miles per hour). Most researchers believe the actual extreme value is near the lower end of this range. Maximum tangential speeds occur in a ring-shaped region that surrounds the tip of the vortex core that is centred 30 to 50 metres (100 to 160 feet) above the ground. The vertical speeds of air rising as a central jet through the hole in the ring may be as high as 80 metres per second, or 300 km per hour (about 250 feet per second, or 170 miles per hour). Radial speeds of air flowing from the inflow region to the corner region (which feeds the central jet) are estimated to reach 50 metres per second, or 180 km per hour (about 160 feet per second, or 110 miles per hour). Because the organization of the airflow varies considerably with tornado intensity, extremes in vertical and radial speeds may not occur at the same time as extremes in tangential speeds.

      These extreme speeds are the strongest winds known to occur near the Earth's surface. In reality, they occur over a very small portion of the tornado core close to the ground. Their actual occurrence is rare, and, when they do occur, they usually last only a very short time.In almost all tornadoes (about 98 percent), the maximum attained wind speed is much less than these maximum possible speeds.

      While there have not been any direct measurements of atmospheric pressure in tornadoes, a few measurements have been taken when tornadoes passed near weather stations with barographs (instruments that record atmospheric pressure over time). Data from such incidents, along with measurements made in laboratory vortices, provide for the construction of mathematical models describing the distribution of surface pressure beneath tornadoes. These models, combined with information on tornado winds, are used to extrapolate what was the most likely air pressure at the centre of any given tornado.

      These extrapolations indicate that a region of low surface pressure is centred beneath the tornado core. The area of this region is relatively small compared with that of the annulus of high-speed winds that surrounds it. Even for violent tornadoes, the reduction in surface pressure in this area (relative to surface pressure in the surrounding atmosphere) is probably no more than 100 hectopascals (that is, about 10 percent of standard atmospheric pressure at sea level). In most tornadoes, the reduction in central surface pressure is not that great.

      The lowest atmospheric pressure in a tornado is thought to be at the centre of the core a few tens to a few hundred metres above the surface, though the magnitude of the pressure reduction is unknown. In violent tornadoes this pressure difference appears to be sufficient to induce a central downflow.

Funnel clouds
      A tornado is often made visible by a distinctive funnel-shaped cloud. Commonly called the condensation funnel, the funnel cloud is a tapered column of water droplets that extends downward from the base of the parent cloud. It is commonly mixed with and perhaps enveloped by dust and debris lifted from the surface. The funnel cloud may be present but not visible due to heavy rain. Over a tornado's lifetime, the size and shape of the funnel cloud may change markedly, reflecting changes in the intensity of the winds, the moisture content of the inflowing air, properties of the ground, and other factors. Very frequently the condensation funnel extends from the parent cloud only partway to the ground, and in very dry conditions there may be no condensation funnel. Generally, the more moist the air and the more intense the tornado, the larger the funnel cloud.

      The funnel cloud usually outlines only the innermost core. Typically, its diameter is at most one-tenth that of the overall tornado circulation. Indeed, a tornado can occur without a funnel cloud being present at all. The funnel cloud's length can range from tens of metres to several kilometres; its diameter can span a few metres to hundreds of metres. Funnel clouds of weak tornadoes are usually cone-shaped, while strong and violent tornadoes form short, broad, cylindrical pillars. Long, rope-like tubes that trail off horizontally are common in the waning phase of many tornadoes.

      The lifetime of a tornado is directly related to its intensity, with more intense tornadoes tending to last longer. On average, a tornado is on the ground for about 15 minutes, but this value is misleading because the average is heavily weighted by the rare but long-lived violent tornadoes. Most tornadoes are weak, lasting only about two to three minutes on average. A typical lifetime for strong tornadoes is about 8 minutes, while for violent events it is about 25 minutes. In exceptional cases, violent events can last more than three hours.

Speed and direction of movement
      The movement of a tornado is determined by the motion of the generating thunderstorm. The average tornado moves at a speed of about 12 to 13 metres per second, or 43 to 47 km per hour (about 39 to 43 feet per second, or 27 to 29 miles per hour), but some have remained nearly stationary while others have traveled faster than 25 metres per second, or 90 km per hour (80 feet per second, or 55 miles per hour). As an extreme example, speeds of up to 33 metres per second, or 120 km per hour (110 feet per second, or 75 miles per hour) were measured in a tornado that struck Guin, Alabama, on April 3, 1974.

      Most tornado-producing thunderstorms occur in a warm air mass that is under the influence of an active synoptic-scale low-pressure system (such a system covers about one-half of the continent). The middle-level winds (3 to 10 km [2 to 6 miles] in altitude) that in large part determine the direction of storm motion tend to be from the west or southwest in the Northern Hemisphere. Hence, most tornadoes (around 80 percent) come from the west or southwest and move to the east or northeast. Tornadoes move from northwest to southeast about 5 percent of the time. Many hurricane-related tornadoes have traveled east to west, as have a few Great Plains and Midwest tornadoes. In the Southern Hemisphere, storms (and consequently tornadoes) tend to move from the west or northwest to the east or southeast.

Tornado cyclones, tornado families, and long-track tornadoes
      About 90 percent of tornadoes are associated with thunderstorms (thunderstorm), usually supercells (thunderstorm); this association accounts for many weak and almost all strong and violent tornadoes. The other 10 percent of tornado occurrences are associated with rapidly growing cumulus clouds; these vortices are almost always weak and short-lived.

      As a very rough estimate, about 100,000 thunderstorms occur in the United States each year. About 10 percent of these (or about 10,000 per year) will become severe thunderstorms, and only about 5 percent to 10 percent of these severe storms (or about 500 to 1,000 per year) will produce tornadoes.

      The typical tornado-producing thunderstorm lasts for two to three hours and usually produces one or two relatively short-lived tornadoes. The period of storm maturity during which a tornado is most likely to form may last only a few tens of minutes. However, on rare occasions a storm may produce a tornado cyclone (a core of concentrated rotation within the storm from which tornadoes are spawned) that is stable and long-lived. The strength of the tornado cyclone usually pulsates, creating a sequence of tornadoes. This gives rise to what is known as a tornado family. Tornado families typically have two or three members, though they can be much larger. During the Super Outbreak (Super Outbreak of 1974) of April 3–4, 1974, in the United States, a single storm traveling along the Ohio River produced a family with eight members spread over several hundred kilometres.

      On very rare occasions, the strength of a tornado cyclone will remain nearly constant for several hours, forming a single, long-lasting tornado with a continuous damage path many times the average length. This is referred to as a long-track tornado. Long-track tornadoes can be difficult to distinguish from tornado families. For instance, the Great Tri-State Tornado of March 18, 1925, is credited with a path length of 352 km (219 miles), though it cannot be proved that this event, which affected Missouri, Illinois, and Indiana, was an individual tornado or a series in the same family. On the other hand, the Monticello, Indiana, tornado on April 3, 1974 (part of the Super Outbreak mentioned above), produced a continuous track of damage for over 160 km (99 miles). It was also the fifth and final member of a tornado family.

Tornado formation

The mesocyclone
      Tornadoes may occur wherever conditions favour the development of strong thunderstorms. Essential conditions for such storms are the presence of cool, dry air at middle levels in the troposphere, overlying a layer of moist, conditionally unstable air near the surface of the Earth. Conditional instability occurs when a saturated air parcel (air at 100 percent relative humidity) continues to rise once set in motion, but an unsaturated air parcel resists being displaced vertically. The unsaturated air, if moved upward, will be cooler than the surrounding air and it will sink. On the other hand, when conditionally unstable air rises it becomes warmer owing to the condensation of water vapour. As the water condenses, heat is released, further warming the air and fueling its rise. This convective (convection) action (that is, the circulation of air as a result of heat transfer) produces the huge clouds commonly associated with thunderstorms and tornadoes. Convection can be initiated when the Sun heats a localized area of the ground, destabilizing the near-surface air.

      Thunderstorms can also form along the boundary, or front, between air masses of different temperatures. In this case, the denser cool air displaces the warmer and forces it to rise. The greater the contrast in temperature and moisture across the frontal boundary, the greater the instability of the atmosphere and the greater the likelihood of a strong thunderstorm.

 Most tornadoes are formed when a strong updraft such as those described above acts to concentrate atmospheric rotation, or spin, into a swirling column of air. Spin is a natural occurrence in air because horizontal winds almost always experience both an increase in speed and a veering in direction with increasing height above the surface. The increase of wind speed with height (called vertical speed shear) produces “crosswise spin,” that is, rotation about a horizontal axis crosswise to the direction of wind flow. When air containing crosswise spin flows into an updraft, the spin is drawn upward, producing rotation about a vertical axis. The veering of wind direction with height (vertical direction shear) is another source of horizontal spin, this time oriented in the same direction as the wind flow and known as “streamwise spin.” When air containing streamwise spin is drawn into an updraft, it too is tilted upward and rotates about a vertical axis. Although crosswise spin and streamwise spin are oriented at right angles to each other, both rotations exist in the horizontal plane, and both types have been revealed by Doppler radar observations to contribute to the evolution of a rotating updraft. Radar observations also have shown that updraft rotation makes its appearance in a thunderstorm at altitudes of 4 to 8 km (2.5 to 5 miles). At first, the tilting of crosswise spin into the vertical appears to be the principal mechanism of rotation; subsequently, as updraft rotation intensifies, the tilting of streamwise spin becomes more important. The resulting swirling column of rising air, perhaps 10 to 20 km (6 to 12 miles) in diameter and only weakly rotating, is called a mesocyclone.

The dynamic pipe
      As spin-up of the mesocyclone continues, its rotating action begins to reorganize airflow in the updraft. The local pressure field and the strongly curved wind field move toward a dynamic equilibrium called cyclostrophic balance (cyclostrophic wind). In this state, the pressure-gradient force, which acts to move air inward in response to the lower pressure in the centre of the rotating column, is equaled by the outward-directed centrifugal force. When cyclostrophic balance is achieved, air readily flows in a circular path around the mesocyclone's axis, while flow toward or away from its centre is strongly suppressed. This state, in which airflow is constrained by its own rotation, is known as the dynamic pipe effect.

      The middle level of the storm is usually the first area where cyclostrophic balance is achieved, and it is this section of the mesocyclone that begins to act as a dynamic pipe. Almost all the air flowing along the mesocyclone's axis is drawn in through the bottom of the pipe. This inflow further intensifies rotation at the pipe's lower end, causing it to extend rapidly downward as the more quickly rotating region comes into cyclostrophic balance.

      Strong convergence of inflowing air at the lower end of the pipe causes air parcels to be accelerated upward and vertically “stretched.” Vertical stretching normally causes the mesocyclone to contract to a diameter of about 2 to 6 km (1 to 4 miles). As this happens, the mesocyclone rotates more quickly, which in turn strengthens the convergence of inflowing winds at its base. In this manner the mesocyclone grows in strength in a positive-feedback, or self-amplifying, process.

      Development of the dynamic pipe effect can produce a mesocyclone that extends the full depth of the thunderstorm, from about 1 km (0.6 mile) above the ground to near the storm's top at about 15 km (9 miles). Frequently, the maturation of the mesocyclone is heralded at the bottom of the cloud by a lowering of a portion of the thunderstorm's base in the area of the updraft. This approximately cylindrical extension is known as a wall cloud. Surface winds with speeds as high as 33 metres per second, or 120 km per hour (110 feet per second, or 75 miles per hour) can be present beneath this swirling cloud, often producing damage even when no tornado forms.

The tornado core and the condensation funnel
 The extension of a concentrated swirling core to the surface—in other words, the actual formation of a tornado—can occur once the mesocyclone is established. Most mesocyclones do not generate tornadoes. In the ones that do, a small region of increased convergence and stretching that is typically no more than one kilometre in diameter develops in the mesocyclone for reasons that have so far eluded storm researchers. This usually occurs at the interface between the thunderstorm's updraft and downdraft. Enhanced spin begins several kilometres above the ground, then quickly builds downward. Around such a small volume, rotation is strong enough for a smaller dynamic pipe to form and extend to within several tens of metres of the surface. This dynamic pipe is called the tornado core. Once it forms, the parent mesocyclone is reclassified as a tornado cyclone.

      As the core approaches the ground, surface friction slows the rotational motion and prevents the establishment of cyclostrophic balance. Surface friction also limits the rate of airflow into the base of the core. This restriction prevents inflow from filling the tornado's low-pressure core from below. At the same time, the parent storm's strong updraft prevents sufficient air from filling the core from above.

      With air pressure in the vortex core thus reduced in comparison to the pressure outside the core at the same elevation, a condensation funnel forms. This occurs because, at lower atmospheric pressure, air flowing upward in the core cools more quickly with increasing height than air rising at higher pressure just outside the core. Assuming that inflowing air has the same amount of moisture throughout, air rising in the core reaches its dew point at a lower height than air rising just outside the core; any further rise leads to condensation and a visible cloud. Because pressure is lowest at the axis of the vortex, air rising along this centre line reaches its dew point nearer the ground than air spiraling up just a short distance outward. This process gives rise to the characteristic conical or funnel shape of the condensation cloud.

Location in the parent storm
      Many weak tornadoes form between the surface and the lowest portion of the parent cloud. These tornadoes exist for only a short time (a few minutes). Such tornadoes most commonly form beneath the flanking line of cumulus congestus clouds that frequently develop above a strong thunderstorm's gust front (the leading edge of the storm's downdraft). Often called gustnadoes, these vortices are true tornadoes when they are attached to the updraft of a rapidly growing congestus cloud. Gustnadoes draw their spin from the wind shear across the gust front. Their transient nature, relatively small diameters, and lack of a rotating region within the generating cloud cause them to be difficult to observe with radar. As a result, small tornadoes are not well documented, and in many respects they are less understood than stronger events.

      In contrast to gustnadoes, almost all strong and violent tornadoes (and some weak ones as well) are closely connected with a rotating updraft that extends through much of the height of the parent storm. Such tornadoes tend to form near the interface between a storm's updraft and downdraft. To an observer on the ground, they are generally perceived as being beneath the right-rear quadrant of the main body of the storm in the Northern Hemisphere as viewed along the storm path. Because of the connection of these tornadoes to large-diameter circulations within the thunderstorm, many of the events leading to their formation have been fairly well documented both visually and by radar.

John Snow

Additional Reading
A personal account of field research on tornadic thunderstorms is presented by Howard B. Bluestein, Tornado Alley: Monster Storms of the Great Plains (1999), an easy-to-read work that presents a clear discussion of the origin and effects of a tornado and includes numerous dramatic photographs. Documentation of all strong and violent tornadoes in the United States since the 1950s, as well as information on the risk of a strong or violent tornado at a particular location, is provided by Thomas P. Grazulis, Significant Tornadoes, 1680–1991 (1993) and its update Significant Tornadoes Update, 1992–1995 (1997); while aimed at a technical audience, these works are moderately easy to read and contain much information of general interest.T. Theodore Fujita, U.S. Tornadoes. Part One (1987–98), by the “grand master” of tornado research in the United States for many years, covers tornado climatology of the 20th century. A basic, easy-to-read report on how tornadic winds produce damage is provided by Joseph E. Minor, The Tornado: An Engineering-Oriented Perspective (1978, reprinted 1993); information is also included on how some damage can be mitigated by good construction practices.Basic information on every severe weather event in the United States is compiled monthly from reports submitted by National Weather Service offices and presented by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration in the periodical Storm Data; feature articles are presented on particularly notable events. Edwin Kessler (ed.), Thunderstorms: A Social, Scientific, and Technological Documentary, 2nd ed. rev. and enlarged, 3 vol. (1983–88), provides extensive coverage of tornadoes as well as hail, damaging straight-line winds, and lightning; written for a wide audience, the individual articles range from easily accessible to highly technical.John Snow

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Universalium. 2010.

(of great violence and with a whirling motion), , , , ,

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