temperament


temperament
/tem"peuhr euh meuhnt, -preuh meuhnt, -peuhr meuhnt/, n.
1. the combination of mental, physical, and emotional traits of a person; natural predisposition.
2. unusual personal attitude or nature as manifested by peculiarities of feeling, temper, action, etc., often with a disinclination to submit to conventional rules or restraints.
3. (old physiology) the combination of the four cardinal humors, the relative proportions of which were supposed to determine physical and mental constitution.
4. Music.
a. the tuning of a keyboard instrument, as the piano, organ, or harpsichord, so that the instrument may be played in all keys without further tuning.
b. a particular system of doing this.
5. Archaic. an act of tempering or moderating.
6. Archaic. climate.
[1375-1425; late ME < L temperamentum due mixture, equiv. to tempera(re) to mix properly + -mentum -MENT]
Syn. 1. nature, makeup. See disposition.

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In the psychological study of personality, an individual's characteristic or habitual inclination or mode of emotional response.

The notion of temperament in this sense originated with Galen, who developed it from an earlier theory regarding the four "humours": blood, phlegm, and black and yellow bile. The subject was taken up in the 20th century by Ernst Kretschmer and later theorists, including Margaret Mead. Today researchers emphasize physiological processes (including the endocrine and autonomic nervous systems) and culture and learning.

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      in psychology, an aspect of personality concerned with emotional dispositions and reactions and their speed and intensity; the term often is used to refer to the prevailing mood or mood pattern of a person. The notion of temperament in this sense originated with Galen (Galen Of Pergamum), the Greek physician of the 2nd century AD, who developed it from an earlier physiological theory of four basic body fluids (humours): blood, phlegm, black bile, and yellow bile. According to their relative predominance in the individual, they were supposed to produce, respectively, temperaments designated sanguine (warm, pleasant), phlegmatic (slow-moving, apathetic), melancholic (depressed, sad), and choleric (quick to react, hot tempered). More recent theories emphasize the influence of the endocrine glands on emotional reactivity. Modern psychology attributes primary importance to the activity of the autonomic nervous system, particularly its sympathetic branch, in emotional reactivity: autonomic over-responsiveness is intimately linked with neurotic dispositions. Because such responses can be conditioned, individual differences in ease of conditioning (also probably innate) also play a part in determining temperament. See also character.

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Universalium. 2010.

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  • tempérament — [ tɑ̃peramɑ̃ ] n. m. • 1478; h. XIIIe; lat. imp. temperamentum « juste proportion », d où « action de tempérer », de temperare « adoucir » I ♦ 1 ♦ (1583) Vx ou littér. Équilibre d un mélange, d une composition. « Ce tempérament de mes tendances » …   Encyclopédie Universelle

  • temperament — Temperament. s. m. Complexion, meslange des quatre humeurs dans le corps de l Animal. Il ne se dit guere qu en parlant de l homme. Bon temperament. mauvais temperament. je connois son temperament. cela altere le temperament. estre d un… …   Dictionnaire de l'Académie française

  • temperament — TEMPERAMÉNT, temperamente, s.n. Ansamblul trăsăturilor fiziologice şi nervoase ale unei persoane, care determină diferenţieri psihice şi de comportament între indivizi; fire. ♦ Energie vitală, avânt, elan, impetuozitate; vioiciune. – Din fr.… …   Dicționar Român

  • Temperament — Tem per*a*ment, n. [L. temperamentum a mixing in due proportion, proper measure, temperament: cf. F. temp[ e]rament. See {Temper}, v. t.] 1. Internal constitution; state with respect to the relative proportion of different qualities, or… …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • temperament — {{/stl 13}}{{stl 8}}rz. mnż I, D. u, Mc. temperamentncie {{/stl 8}}{{stl 20}} {{/stl 20}}{{stl 12}}1. {{/stl 12}}{{stl 7}} zespół cech psychicznych człowieka, wyrażających się w jakości, szybkości i trwałości reakcji uczuciowych na bodźce;… …   Langenscheidt Polski wyjaśnień

  • Temperament — Sn std. (16. Jh.) Entlehnung. Entlehnt aus l. temperāmentum n. richtige Mischung , Abstraktum zu l. temperāre mischen (temperieren). Im 16. Jh. wird das Wort auf die richtige Mischung der Körpersäfte angewandt (im Sinne der Säftelehre: s.… …   Etymologisches Wörterbuch der deutschen sprache

  • temperament — temperàment (temperamȅnt) m <G mn nātā> DEFINICIJA psih. način, brzina i jačina umnog i osjećajnog reagiranja, način ponašanja svojstven pojedincu, skup psiholoških značajki; ćud, narav [hladan temperament; miran temperament; razdražljiv… …   Hrvatski jezični portal

  • temperament — [tem′pər ə mənt, tem′prə mənt] n. [ME < L temperamentum, proper mixing < temperare: see TEMPER] 1. Obs. the act or an instance of tempering; proportionate mixture or balance of ingredients 2. in medieval physiology, any of the four… …   English World dictionary

  • Temperament — »Wesens , Gemütsart; Lebhaftigkeit, Schwung, Feuer«: Das Fremdwort wurde im 16. Jh. aus lat. temperamentum »das richtige Verhältnis gemischter Dinge, die gehörige Mischung; das rechte Maß« (wie auch entsprechend engl. temperament, frz.… …   Das Herkunftswörterbuch

  • Temperament — нем. [тэмпэрамэ/нт], англ. [тэ/мпэрэмэнт] tempérament фр. [танпэрама/н] temperamento ит. [тэмпэрамэ/нто] 1) темперамент 2) темперация …   Словарь иностранных музыкальных терминов

  • tempérament — Temperament нем. [тэмпэрамэ/нт], англ. [тэ/мпэрэмэнт] tempérament фр. [танпэрама/н] temperamento ит. [тэмпэрамэ/нто] 1) темперамент 2) темперация …   Словарь иностранных музыкальных терминов


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