Tallinn


Tallinn
/tah"lin, tal"in/, n.
a seaport in and the capital of Estonia, on the Gulf of Finland. 499,800.
Also, Tallin. Formerly, Russian, Revel; German, Reval.

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formerly (until 1918) Revel

Seaport city (pop., 2001: 399,850), capital of Estonia.

It is located on the Gulf of Finland. A fortified settlement existed there from the late 1st millennium BC and a town in the 12th century AD. In 1219 it was captured by the Danes, who built a new fortress. Trade flourished after it joined the Hanseatic League in 1285. In 1346 it was sold to the Teutonic Order, and in 1561 it passed to Sweden. Russia captured it in 1710, and it remained a Russian city until 1918, when it became the capital of independent Estonia. From 1940 to 1991 Estonia was a republic of the U.S.S.R. During World War II the city was occupied by German forces and was severely damaged. Rebuilt, it again became the capital of independent Estonia in 1991. It is a major commercial and fishing port, an industrial centre, and the cultural focus of Estonia, with numerous educational institutions. Historical structures include a medieval city wall and a 13th-century church.

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Russian  Tallin , German  Reval , formerly (until 1918)  Revel 
 city, capital of Estonia, on Tallinn Bay of the Gulf of Finland (Finland, Gulf of). A fortified settlement existed there from the late 1st millennium BC until the 10th–11th century AD, and there was a town on the site in the 12th century. In 1219 it was captured by the Danes, who built a new fortress on Toompea hill. Trade flourished, especially after Tallinn joined the Hanseatic League in 1285. In 1346 it was sold to the Teutonic Knights, and on the dissolution of the order in 1561 it passed to Sweden. Peter I (the Great) captured Tallinn in 1710, and it remained a Russian city until it became the capital of independent Estonia from 1918 to 1940. (Estonia was annexed to the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics from 1940 to 1991.) The city was occupied by German forces from 1941 to 1944 and was severely damaged. After the Supreme Soviet of Estonia declared independence in 1991, Tallinn became the capital of the newly independent state.

      Both in 1940 and again in 1944–49, many Estonian citizens of Tallinn were deported and imprisoned by Soviet (Union of Soviet Socialist Republics) forces for alleged conspiracy, collaboration with the Germans, and opposition to collectivization. Of those exiled, a large proportion settled in Sweden or North America. Russians immigrated to the Estonian capital and now comprise two-fifths of the population. Ethnic Estonians make up roughly half of the city's population.

  Many relics of Tallinn's long history survive or have been restored, especially on Toompea hill and in the old, walled Lower Town. They include the 13th-century Toom Church, the Gothic Oleviste and Niguliste churches, the Great Guildhall of 1410, the 14th-century Rathus, and much of the old castle. The city's historic centre was designated a UNESCO World Heritage site in 1997. Today Tallinn is a major commercial and fishing port and industrial centre. Shipbuilding and machine building head a range of engineering industries, and many consumer goods are produced. The cultural centre of Estonia, Tallinn has an academy of sciences; polytechnic, fine-arts, and teacher-training institutes; a music conservatory; and several theatres and museums. Tallinn Airport, servicing both domestic and international flights, is the biggest airport in the Baltics. Pop. (2007 est.) 396,852.
 

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Universalium. 2010.

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