Syr Darya


Syr Darya
/sear" dahr"yeuh/; Russ. /sirdd" du rddyah"/
a river in central Asia, flowing NW from the Tien Shan Mountains in Kyrgyzstan, through Uzbekistan and Kazakhstan to the Aral Sea. 1300 mi. (2100 km) long. Ancient name, Jaxartes.

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ancient Jaxartes River

River, Central Asia, in Uzbekistan, Tajikistan, and Kazakhstan.

Formed by the confluence of two headstreams in the fertile Fergana Valley, it flows west-northwest for 1,374 mi (2,212 km) to empty into the Aral Sea. Its lower course is on the eastern edge of the Kyzylkum desert. It is the longest river in Central Asia but carries less water than does the Amu Darya. It is used extensively for hydroelectric power and irrigation.

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also spelled  Syrdarya , Kazak  Syrdarīya , Tajik  Daryoi Sir , Uzbek  Sirdaryo , ancient name  Jaxartes 

      river in the Central Asian republics of Uzbekistan, Tajikistan, and Kazakhstan. The Syr Darya is formed by the confluence of the Naryn and Qoradaryo rivers in the eastern Fergana Valley and generally flows northwest until it empties into the Aral Sea. With a length of 1,374 miles (2,212 km)—1,876 miles (3,019 km) including the Naryn—the Syr Darya is the longest river in Central Asia, but it carries less water than the Amu Darya. Its watershed is not clearly defined except in its upper course, where it drains a basin of 178,000 square miles (462,000 square km). Most of the Syr Darya's tributaries in the Fergana Valley fail to reach it because they are used fully for irrigation.

      After leaving the Fergana Valley the river flows northwest, receiving the Ohangaron, Chirchiq, Keles, and Arys rivers on the right. In its middle and lower reaches it follows a meandering course through the eastern outskirts of the Kyzylkum Desert, frequently changing its bed, forming channels that often lose themselves in the sands, and overflowing its low banks at flood. It is fed in its upper mountainous basin mainly by snow and to a lesser extent by glaciers, and high water lasts from March or April to September. The Syr Darya carries a considerable amount of silt, much of which it deposits in the vicinity of Qazaly, Kazakhstan. The river freezes in its lower reaches from December to March.

      There are a number of hydroelectric power stations on the Syr Darya and its tributaries, of which the largest are the Farhod (in Uzbekistan), Qayroqqum (Tajikistan), and Shardara (Kazakhstan) stations on the main stream and, in Uzbekistan, the Chorwoq station on the Chirchiq River and the Uchqŭrghon station on the Naryn River. There are also dams in Kazakhstan at Qyzylorda and Qazaly. The Toktogul hydroelectric power station, which was constructed on the Naryn River in the 1970s and expanded in the '80s, regulates the river's flow. As much as 5,000,000 acres (2,000,000 hectares) of land are irrigated by the Syr Darya and its tributaries, with cotton the chief crop in the Fergana Valley and the Syr Darya's middle course and rice in the river's lower reaches.

      The diversion of water from the Syr Darya for irrigation contributed to the shrinkage of the Aral Sea in the latter part of the 20th century. By the 1990s the flow of the Syr Darya along its lower reaches was much reduced during the whole year. The gradual retreat of the Aral Sea shoreline and the drying up of the Syr Darya's deltaic region exposed toxic fertilizer and salt residues to the winds, devastating local plant and animal life and causing serious health problems among the human population.

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Universalium. 2010.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Syr Darya — [sir där′yä] river in central Asia, flowing from the Tian Shan Mountains into the Aral Sea: c. 1,700 mi (2,736 km) …   English World dictionary

  • Syr Darya — Infobox River river name = Syr Darya caption = Map of area around the Aral Sea. Aral Sea boundaries are circa 1960. Countries at least partially in the Aral Sea watershed are in yellow. origin = Naryn and Kara Darya rivers mouth = Aral Sea basin… …   Wikipedia

  • Syr Darya — Syr Dar•ya [[t]ˈsɪər ˈdɑr yə[/t]] n. geg a river in central Asia, flowing NW from the Tien Shan Mountains to the Aral Sea. 1300 mi. (2100 km) long Ancient name, Jaxartes …   From formal English to slang

  • Syr Darya — /sɪə daˈja/ (say sear dah yah) noun a river in central Asia, flowing from the Tien Shan Mountains north west through Kazakhstan to the Aral Sea. About 2093 km. Ancient name, Jaxartes …   Australian English dictionary

  • Syr Darya — /sear dahr yeuh/; Russ. /sirdd du rddyah / a river in central Asia, flowing NW from the Tien Shan Mountains in Kyrgyzstan, through Uzbekistan and Kazakhstan to the Aral Sea. 1300 mi. (2100 km) long. Ancient name, Jaxartes …   Useful english dictionary

  • Syr-darya shovelnose sturgeon — Taxobox name = Syr darya shovelnose sturgeon status = CR | status system = IUCN2.3 regnum = Animalia phylum = Chordata classis = Actinopterygii ordo = Acipenseriformes familia = Acipenseridae genus = Pseudoscaphirhynchus species = P. fedtschenkoi …   Wikipedia

  • Syr Daryá, río — o río Sir Dariá antig. Jaxartes Río de Asia central que cruza Uzbekistán, Tayikistán y Kazajstán. Formado por la confluencia de dos afluentes en el fértil valle del Ferganá, fluye en dirección oeste noroeste a lo largo de 2.212 km (1.374 mi)… …   Enciclopedia Universal

  • Syr-daria — Carte de la région du Syr Daria Caractéristiques Longueur 2 212 km …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Syr Daria — Carte de la région du Syr Daria Caractéristiques Longueur 2 212 km …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Syr-Daria — 46° 09′ 14″ N 60° 53′ 20″ E / 46.154, 60.889 …   Wikipédia en Français


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