syntax


syntax
/sin"taks/, n.
1. Ling.
a. the study of the rules for the formation of grammatical sentences in a language.
b. the study of the patterns of formation of sentences and phrases from words.
c. the rules or patterns so studied: English syntax.
d. a presentation of these: a syntax of English.
e. an instance of these: the syntax of a sentence.
2. Logic.
a. that branch of modern logic that studies the various kinds of signs that occur in a system and the possible arrangements of those signs, complete abstraction being made of the meaning of the signs.
b. the outcome of such a study when directed upon a specified language.
3. a system or orderly arrangement.
4. Computers. the grammatical rules and structural patterns governing the ordered use of appropriate words and symbols for issuing commands, writing code, etc., in a particular software application or programming language.
[1565-75; short for earlier syntaxis < LL < Gk sýntaxis an arranging in order, equiv. to syntag- (see SYNTACTIC) + -sis -SIS]

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Arrangement of words in sentences, clauses, and phrases, and the study of the formation of sentences and the relationship of their component parts.

In English, the main device for showing this relationship is word order; for example, "The boy loves his dog" follows standard subject-verb-object word order, and switching the order of such a sentence would change the meaning or make the sentence meaningless. Word order is much more flexible in languages such as Latin, in which word endings indicate the case of a noun or adjective; such inflections make it unnecessary to rely on word order to indicate a word's function in the sentence.

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      the arrangement of words in sentences, clauses, and phrases, and the study of the formation of sentences and the relationship of their component parts. In a language such as English, the main device for showing the relationship among words is word order; e.g., in “The girl loves the boy,” the subject is in initial position, and the object follows the verb. Transposing them changes the meaning. In many other languages, case markers indicate the grammatical relationships. In Latin (Latin language), for example, “The girl loves the boy” may be puella puerum amat with “the girl” in initial position, or puerum puella amat with “the boy” in initial position, or amat puella puerum, amat puerum puella, or puella amat puerum. The meaning remains constant because the -um ending on the form for “boy” indicates the object of the verb, regardless of its position in the sentence.

      Sentences are constructed from phrases or groups of words that have a closer relationship to each other than to the words outside the phrase. In the sentence “My dog is playing in the yard” there is a closer relationship between the words “is playing,” which together form the verb, than between the words “playing in the,” which form only part of the verb and part of the phrase indicating the location of the playing.

 The study of syntax also includes the investigation of the relations among sentences that are similar, such as “John saw Mary” and “Mary was seen by John.” Syntax received much attention after 1957, when the American linguist Noam Chomsky proposed a radically new theory of language, transformational grammar (q.v.).
 

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Universalium. 2010.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • SYNTAX — est un générateur d analyseurs lexicaux et syntaxiques (déterministes ou non déterministes) pour toutes les grammaires non contextuelles ainsi que certaines classes de grammaires contextuelles. Il est développé à l INRIA depuis plusieurs dizaines …   Wikipédia en Français

  • syntax — syn‧tax [ˈsɪntæks] noun [uncountable] COMPUTING the rules describing how words and phrases in a computer language are ordered: • The commands follow a strict syntax, but they are not difficult to learn. * * * syntax UK US /ˈsɪntæks/ noun [U or C] …   Financial and business terms

  • Syntax — Sf std. (18. Jh.) Entlehnung. Entlehnt aus gr. sýntaxis, eigentlich Zusammenordnung , zu gr. táxis Ordnung und gr. syn , zu gr. tássein ordnen .    Ebenso nndl. syntaxis, ne. syntax, nfrz. syntaxe, nschw. syntax, nnorw. syntaks; hypotaktisch,… …   Etymologisches Wörterbuch der deutschen sprache

  • Syntax — Syn tax, n. [L. syntaxis, Gr. ?, fr. ? to put together in order; sy n with + ? to put in order; cf. F. syntaxe. See {Syn }, and {Tactics}.] 1. Connected system or order; union of things; a number of things jointed together; organism. [Obs.] [1913 …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • Syntax — Pays d’origine Londres, Angleterre Genre musical Electro Progressive House Rock Trip Hop Années d activité Depuis 2002 Labels Illustrious Records Me …   Wikipédia en Français

  • syntax — c.1600, from Fr. syntaxe, from L.L. syntaxis, from Gk. syntaxis a putting together or in order, arrangement, syntax, from stem of syntassein put in order, from syn together + tassein arrange (see TACTICS (Cf. tactics)) …   Etymology dictionary

  • Syntax [1] — Syntax (v. gr. Syntaxis), 1) Zusammenstellung verschiedenartiger Dinge zu einem geordneten Ganzen; 2) (Wortfügungslehre), die Zusammenfügung der Redetheile zu einer verständlichen, wohlgeordneten Rede in Sätzen u. Perioden. Die besondere… …   Pierer's Universal-Lexikon

  • Syntax [2] — Syntax, Peregrinus, Pseudonym für Ferd. Hempel …   Pierer's Universal-Lexikon

  • Syntax — (griech.), nach der landläufigen Auffassung die Lehre von der »Verbindung« der Wörter zu Sätzen, also die Satzlehre, die neben der Laut und Formenlehre als dem ersten den zweiten Hauptteil der Grammatik bildet. Eine aus der Natur der Sache selbst …   Meyers Großes Konversations-Lexikon

  • Syntax — (grch.), Satzlehre, der Teil der Grammatik, der sich mit dem Satzbau und den Verhältnissen der Worte im Satz beschäftigt …   Kleines Konversations-Lexikon

  • Syntax — Syntax, derjenige Haupttheil der Grammatik, welcher nach erfolgter Feststellung der einzelnen Worte durch die Etymologie (s. d.) die Zusammensetzung dieser Wörter, zu Sätzen und Perioden, lehrt …   Damen Conversations Lexikon


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