synagogue

synagogue
synagogical /sin'euh goj"i keuhl/, synagogal /sin"euh gog'euhl, -gaw'geuhl/, adj.
/sin"euh gog', -gawg'/, n.
1. a Jewish house of worship, often having facilities for religious instruction.
2. an assembly or congregation of Jews for the purpose of religious worship.
3. the Jewish religion; Judaism.
Also, synagog.
[1125-75; ME synagoge < LL synagoga < Gk synagogé assembly, meeting, equiv. to syn- SYN- + agogé, n. use of fem. of agogós (adj.) gathering, deriv. of ágein to bring, lead; akin to L agere to drive]

* * *

In Judaism, a community house of worship that also serves as a place for assembly and study.

Though their exact origins are uncertain, synagogues flourished side by side with the ancient Temple cult; they existed long before Jewish sacrifice and the established priesthood were terminated with Titus's destruction of the Second Temple (AD 70). Thereafter, synagogues took on even greater importance as the unchallenged focal point of Jewish life. There is no standard synagogue architecture. A typical synagogue contains an ark (where the scrolls of the Law are kept), an "eternal light" burning before the ark, two candelabra, pews, a bimah (see bema), and sometimes a ritual bath (mikvah).

* * *

also spelled  Synagog,  

      in Judaism, a community house of worship that serves as a place not only for liturgical services but also for assembly and study. Its traditional functions are reflected in three Hebrew synonyms for synagogue: bet ha-tefilla (“house of prayer”), bet ha-kneset (“house of assembly”), and bet ha-midrash (“house of study”). The term synagogue is of Greek origin (synagein, “to bring together”) and means a place of assembly. The Yiddish word shul (from German Schule, “school”) is also used to refer to the synagogue, and in modern times, the word temple is common among some Reform and Conservative congregations.

      The oldest dated evidence of a synagogue is from the 3rd century BC, but synagogues doubtless have an older history. Some scholars feel that the destruction of Solomon's Temple in 586 BC gave rise to synagogues after private homes were temporarily used for public worship and religious instructions.

      Other scholars trace the origin of synagogues to the Jewish custom of having representatives of communities outside Jerusalem pray together during the two-week period when priestly representatives of their community attended ritual sacrifices in the Temple of Jerusalem.

      Whatever their origin, synagogues flourished side by side with the ancient Temple cult and existed long before Jewish sacrifice and the established priesthood were terminated with the destruction of the Second Temple by Titus in AD 70. Thereafter, synagogues took on an even greater importance as the unchallenged focal point of Jewish religious life.

      Literature of the 1st century refers to numerous synagogues not only in Palestine but also in Rome, Greece, Egypt, Babylonia, and Asia Minor. By the middle of that century, all sizable Jewish communities had a synagogue where regular morning, afternoon, and evening services were held, with special liturgies on the sabbath and on religious festivals.

      Modern synagogues carry on the same basic functions associated with ancient synagogues but have added social, recreational, and philanthropic programs as the times demand. They are essentially democratic institutions established by a community of Jews who seek God through prayer and sacred studies. Since the liturgy has no sacrifice, no priesthood is required for public worship. Because each synagogue is autonomous, its erection, its maintenance, and its rabbi and officials reflect the desires of the local community.

      There is no standard synagogue architecture. A typical synagogue contains an ark (where the scrolls of the Law are kept), an “eternal light” burning before the ark, two candelabra, pews, and a raised platform (bimah), from which scriptural passages are read and from which, often, services are conducted. The segregation of men and women, a practice that is still observed in Orthodox synagogues, has been abandoned by Reform and Conservative congregations. A ritual bath (mikvah) is sometimes located on the premises.

* * *


Universalium. 2010.

Синонимы:

См. также в других словарях:

  • SYNAGOGUE — La maison de l’assemblée, beth hakenneseth , destinée à la prière avec la participation de tous les fidèles, marque une révolution dans la conception orientale du sanctuaire. Celui ci, considéré comme lieu de la présence, réservé par définition… …   Encyclopédie Universelle

  • Synagogue — • The place of assemblage of the Jews. This article will treat of the name, origin, history, organization, liturgy and building of the synagogue Catholic Encyclopedia. Kevin Knight. 2006. Synagogue     Synagogue …   Catholic encyclopedia

  • synagogue — SYNAGOGUE. s. f. l Assemblée des Juifs reunis en une mesme religion, en une mesme croyance, On ne l a appellée ainsi que peu avant la venuë de Nostre Seigneur. Saint Paul, avant qu il fust converti, avoit beaucoup de zele pour l a synagogue.… …   Dictionnaire de l'Académie française

  • Synagogue — Syn a*gogue, n. [F., from L. synagoga, Gr. ? a bringing together, an assembly, a synagogue, fr. ? to bring together; sy n with + ? to lead. See {Syn }, and {Agent}.] 1. A congregation or assembly of Jews met for the purpose of worship, or the… …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • synagogue — late 12c., from O.Fr. sinagoge (11c.), from L.L. synagoga congregation of Jews, from Gk. synagoge place of assembly, synagogue, lit. meeting, assembly, from synagein to gather, assemble, from syn together + agein bring, lead (see ACT (Cf. act)).… …   Etymology dictionary

  • synagogue — [n] church abbey, cathedral, chapel, house of God, house of prayer, house of worship, mosque, parish, shrine, shul, tabernacle, temple; concepts 368,449 …   New thesaurus

  • synagogue — Synagogue, Synagoga, Congregatio, Coetus …   Thresor de la langue françoyse

  • synagogue — ► NOUN ▪ a building where a Jewish assembly or congregation meets for religious observance and instruction. ORIGIN Greek sunag g meeting …   English terms dictionary

  • synagogue — [sin′ə gäg΄, sin′əgôg΄] n. [ME sinagoge < OFr < LL(Ec) synagoga < Gr(Ec) synagōgē < Gr, a bringing together, assembly < synagein, to bring together < syn , together + agein, to do: see ACT1] 1. an assembly of Jews for worship… …   English World dictionary

  • Synagogue — Vitrail de la synagogue Sixth and I, Washington D.C. Une synagogue (du grec Συναγωγή / Sunagôgê, « assemblée » adapté de l hébreu …   Wikipédia en Français

  • SYNAGOGUE — This article is arranged according to the following outline. origins and history until the first century first century c.e. middle ages modern period …   Encyclopedia of Judaism


Поделиться ссылкой на выделенное

Прямая ссылка:
Нажмите правой клавишей мыши и выберите «Копировать ссылку»