strontium


strontium
strontic /stron"tik/, adj.
/stron"shee euhm, -sheuhm, -tee euhm/, n. Chem.
a bivalent, metallic element whose compounds resemble those of calcium, found in nature only in the combined state, as in strontianite: used in fireworks, flares, and tracer bullets. Symbol: Sr; at. wt.: 87.62; at. no.: 38; sp. gr.: 2.6.
[1800-10; STRONT(IA) + -IUM]

* * *

Chemical element, one of the alkaline earth metals, chemical symbol Sr, atomic number 38.

A soft metal, it has a silvery lustre when freshly cut but reacts rapidly with air. In both the metal and the compounds (in which it has valence 2), strontium resembles calcium and barium so closely that it has few uses that the other two elements cannot supply more cheaply. The nitrate and chlorate, very volatile, give off brilliant crimson flames and are used in flares, fireworks, and tracer bullets. The radioactive isotope strontium-90 (see radioactivity), produced in nuclear explosions, is the principal health hazard in fallout; it can replace some of the calcium in foods, concentrate in bones and teeth, and cause radiation injury.

* * *

Introduction
 chemical element, one of the alkaline-earth metals of main Group 2 (IIa) of the periodic table. It is used as an ingredient in red signal flares and is the principal health hazard in radioactive fallout.

Properties, occurrence, and uses
      Strontium is a soft metal like lead and, when freshly cut, has a silvery lustre. It rapidly reacts in air to take on a yellowish colour; therefore, it is stored in kerosene. It does not occur free in nature. Its cosmic abundance is estimated as 18.9 atoms (Si = 106 atoms). It composes about 0.04 percent of the crust of the Earth. Although it is widely distributed with calcium, there are only two principal ores of strontium alone, celestine (SrSO4) and strontianite (SrCO3).

      Adair Crawford and William Cruikshank first detected (1790) the element in strontianite found at Strontian in Argyll, Scot. The metal was isolated (1808) by Sir Humphry Davy (Davy, Sir Humphry, Baronet), who electrolyzed a mixture of the moist hydroxide or chloride with mercuric oxide, using a mercury cathode, and then evaporated the mercury from the resultant amalgam. Strontium may be obtained in the form of sticks by the contact cathode method of electrolysis, in which a cooled iron rod, acting as a cathode, just touches the surface of a fused mixture of potassium and strontium chlorides and is raised as the strontium solidifies on it. Metallic strontium may be also obtained by reduction of the oxide with aluminum. Because calcium and barium, which it resembles closely, occur in much greater abundance, strontium metal is not produced in commercially important quantities. The metal is malleable and ductile and a good conductor of electricity.

      The four naturally occurring isotopes in the order of their abundance are: strontium-88 (82.56 percent), strontium-86 (9.86 percent), strontium-87 (7.02 percent), and strontium-84 (0.56 percent). About 16 artificial isotopes have been produced by nuclear reactions, of which the longest-lived is strontium-90 (approximately 28-year half-life). This isotope, formed by nuclear explosions, is considered the most dangerous constituent of fallout. (The artificial isotope strontium-89 [52-day half life] is also extremely hazardous.) Strontium can replace some of the calcium in foods and ultimately become concentrated in bones and teeth, where it continues ejecting electrons that cause radiation injury by damaging bone marrow, impairing the process of forming new blood cells, and possibly inducing cancer. Controlled amounts of radioactive strontium have been used as a treatment for bone cancer. The heat of its radioactive decay also can be converted to electricity for long-lived, lightweight power sources in navigation buoys, remote weather stations, space vehicles, etc.

Compounds
      The chemistry of strontium is quite similar to that of calcium. The biological properties of strontium are also very close to those of calcium and distinct from those of barium, whose soluble compounds, for example, are poisonous.

      In its compounds strontium has an exclusive oxidation state of +2, as the Sr2+ ion. It is an active reducing agent and readily reacts with halogens, oxygen, and sulfur to yield halides, oxide, and sulfide.

      Strontium compounds have rather limited commercial value because corresponding calcium and barium compounds serve the same purpose yet are cheaper. A few, however, have found application in industry and elsewhere. Strontium nitrate, Sr(NO3)2, and strontium chlorate, Sr(ClO3)2, are extremely volatile and impart a brilliant crimson colour to flames; they are thus used in various pyrotechnic devices, flares, and tracer bullets. Strontium hydroxide, Sr(OH)2, is sometimes used to extract sugar from molasses because it forms a soluble saccharide from which the sugar can be easily regenerated by the action of carbon dioxide. Strontium monosulfide, SrS, is employed as a depilatory and in some luminous paints.

atomic number
38
atomic weight
87.62
melting point
769° C
boiling point
1,384° C
specific gravity
2.54
oxidation state
+2
electronic config.
[Kr]5s2

* * *


Universalium. 2010.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Strontium — (pronEng|ˈstrɒntiəm, ) is a chemical element with the symbol Sr and the atomic number 38. An alkaline earth metal, strontium is a soft silver white or yellowish metallic element that is highly reactive chemically. The metal turns yellow when… …   Wikipedia

  • Strontium — Rubidium ← Strontium → Yttrium Ca …   Wikipédia en Français

  • STRONTIUM — De Strontian, ville d’Écosse. Symbole chimique: Sr Numéro atomique: 38 Masse atomique: 87,62 Point de fusion: 769 0C Point d’ébullition: 1 384 0C Densité (à 20 0C): 2,54 Métal alcalinoterreux mou, de reflet argenté quand il est fraîchement coupé …   Encyclopédie Universelle

  • Strontium 90 — may refer to: *Strontium 90, a Strontium isotope *Strontium 90 (band) was a British band …   Wikipedia

  • Strontium-90 — A radioactive isotope of strontium produced by certain nuclear reactions, and constituting one of the prominent harmful components of radioactive fallout from nuclear explosions; also called {radiostrontium}. It has a half life of 28 years. [1913 …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • strontium 90 — n a heavy radioactive isotope of strontium having the mass number 90 that is present in the fallout from nuclear explosions and is hazardous because like calcium it can be assimilated in biological processes and deposited in the bones of human… …   Medical dictionary

  • strontium — [strän′shəm, strän′shē əm; stränt′ē əm] n. [ModL: so named (1808) by DAVY Sir Humphry, who first isolated it < STRONTIA + IUM] a pale yellow, metallic chemical element, one of the alkaline earth metals, resembling calcium in properties and… …   English World dictionary

  • strontium — light metallic element, 1808, coined in Modern Latin by English chemist Sir Humphry Davy (1778 1829) from Strontian, name of a parish in Argyllshire, Scotland, the site of lead mines where strontium was first found …   Etymology dictionary

  • Strontium — Stron ti*um, n. [NL. See {Strontia}.] (Chem.) A metallic element of the calcium group, always naturally occurring combined, as in the minerals strontianite, celestite, etc. It is isolated as a yellowish metal, somewhat malleable but harder than… …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • strontium 90 — strontium 90. См. стронций 90. (Источник: «Англо русский толковый словарь генетических терминов». Арефьев В.А., Лисовенко Л.А., Москва: Изд во ВНИРО, 1995 г.) …   Молекулярная биология и генетика. Толковый словарь.

  • Strontĭum — Strontĭum, Element, zu den Metallen der alkalischen Erden gehörig; chemisches Zeichen Sr, Atomgewicht 43,84 (H = 1) od. 548 (O = 100). Findet sich in der Natur als Oxyd (Strontian) an Schwefelsäure od. Kohlensäure gebunden; der schwefelsaure… …   Pierer's Universal-Lexikon


Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”

We are using cookies for the best presentation of our site. Continuing to use this site, you agree with this.