Stone


Stone
/stohn/, n.
1. Edward Durell /doo rel", dyoo-/, 1902-78, U.S. architect.
2. Harlan Fiske /hahr"leuhn/, 1872-1946, U.S. jurist: Chief Justice of the U.S. 1941-46.
3. Irving, born 1903, U.S. author.
4. I(sidor) F(einstein) /fuyn"stuyn/, born 1907, U.S. political journalist.
5. Lucy, 1818-93, U.S. suffragist (wife of Henry Brown Blackwell).

* * *

I
In building construction, rock cut into blocks and slabs or broken into pieces.

It comes as hard as granite and as soft as limestone or sandstone. Where available, stone has generally been the preferred material for monumental structures. Its advantages are durability, adaptability to sculpting, and the fact that it can be used in its natural state. But it is difficult to quarry, transport, and cut, and its weakness in tension limits its use. The simplest stonework is rubble, roughly broken stones bound in mortar. Ashlar work consists of regularly cut blocks with squared edges. Building stone is quarried by sawing if it is soft, and split apart with wedges or by blasting if hard. Many devices are used to shape and dress stone, from handheld tools to circular saws, surfacing machines, and lathes. Some stones are strong enough to act as monolithic (one-piece) supports and beams; and in some styles (e.g., ancient Egyptian temples) stone slabs are employed even for roofing, supported by many closely spaced columns. Before the arch, builders were handicapped by the tendency of stone to break under its own weight. But stone in compression has great strength, and the Romans built huge stone bridges and aqueducts. Though stone has generally been abandoned for structural use in the 20th century, it is widely used as a thin, nonbearing surface cladding. See also masonry.
II
(as used in expressions)
Scone Stone of
Stone Edward Durell
Stone Harlan Fiske
Stone Isidor Feinstein
Stone Lucy
Stone Oliver
Stone Robert Anthony
stone tool industry

* * *

▪ unit of weight
      British unit of weight for dry products generally equivalent to 14 pounds avoirdupois (pound) (6.35 kg), though it varied from 4 to 32 pounds (1.814 to 14.515 kg) for various items over time. Originally any good-sized rock chosen as a local standard, the stone came to be widely used as a unit of weight in trade, its value fluctuating with the commodity and region. In the 14th century England's exportation of raw wool to Florence necessitated a fixed standard. In 1389 a royal statute fixed the stone of wool at 14 pounds and the sack of wool at 26 stones. Trade stones of variant weights persist, such as the glass stone of 5 pounds. The stone is still commonly used in Britain to designate the weights of people and large animals.

* * *


Universalium. 2010.

Synonyms:

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Stone — Stone, n. [OE. ston, stan, AS. st[=a]n; akin to OS. & OFries. st[=e]n, D. steen, G. stein, Icel. steinn, Sw. sten, Dan. steen, Goth. stains, Russ. stiena a wall, Gr. ?, ?, a pebble. [root]167. Cf. {Steen}.] 1. Concreted earthy or mineral matter;… …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • Stone — may refer to:Construction and building* Masonry, the building of structures from stone * Coade stone, a special form of vitreous stoneware, used for monumental work and architectural decoration * Standing stone, a solitary stone set vertically… …   Wikipedia

  • Stone — (englisch für Stein) steht für: Stone (Familienname), der Familienname Stone Stone (Band), eine finnische Thrash Metal Band Stone (Einheit), eine englische Masse Einheit Stone (Film), ein Thriller aus dem Jahr 2010 von John Curran Stone… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • STONE (R.) — STONE RICHARD (1913 1991) Économiste anglais né en 1913, Richard Stone a commencé sa carrière chez un courtier londonien, avant de rejoindre en 1940 les rangs du Bureau central des statistiques, à l’initiative de John Maynard Keynes. Ses… …   Encyclopédie Universelle

  • stone — ► NOUN 1) hard, solid non metallic mineral matter of which rock is made. 2) a small piece of stone found on the ground. 3) a piece of stone shaped for a purpose, especially to commemorate something or to mark out a boundary. 4) a gem. 5) a hard… …   English terms dictionary

  • Stone — Stone, v. t. [imp. & p. p. {Stoned}; p. pr. & vb. n. {Stoning}.] [From {Stone}, n.: cf. AS. st?nan, Goth. stainjan.] 1. To pelt, beat, or kill with stones. [1913 Webster] And they stoned Stephen, calling upon God, and saying, Lord Jesus, receive… …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • stone — [stōn] n. [ME < OE stan, akin to Du steen, Ger stein < IE base * stāi , to become thick, compress, stiffen > L stiria, a drop (< stilla), Gr stear, tallow] 1. the hard, solid, nonmetallic mineral matter of which rock is composed 2. a… …   English World dictionary

  • stone — adverb. Combinations such as stone cold and stone dead, in which stone is used adverbially (‘like a stone’), have been recorded for centuries. More recently, stone has developed a freer adverbial use as a mere intensive equivalent to very or… …   Modern English usage

  • STONE (M. H.) — STONE MARSHALL HARVEY (1903 1989) Après ses études à l’université Harvard, Marshall Harvey Stone enseigna dans diverses universités: Columbia (1925 1927), Yale (1931 1933), Harvard (1927 1931, puis 1933 1946) et Chicago (depuis 1944). Il fut élu… …   Encyclopédie Universelle

  • Stone — Stone, Nicholas * * * (as used in expressions) Stone, Edward Durell Stone, Harlan Fiske Stone, Lucy Stone, Oliver Stone, Robert (Anthony) …   Enciclopedia Universal

  • STONE, I.F. — STONE, I.F. (Isidore Feinstein; 1907–1989), U.S. journalist, born in Philadelphia. Stone edited the liberal weekly The Nation, 1940–46. From 1952 until 1971 he published I.F. Stone s Weekly written by himself and noted for its criticism of… …   Encyclopedia of Judaism


Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”

We are using cookies for the best presentation of our site. Continuing to use this site, you agree with this.