/stok"hohm, -hohlm/; Swed. /stawk"hawlm'/, n.the chief seaport in and the capital of Sweden, in the SE part. 647,214; with suburbs 1,493,546.
* * *Built on numerous islands and peninsulas connected by old bridges and modern overpasses, Stockholm is regarded as one of the most beautiful capitals in the world. According to tradition, Swedish ruler Birger Jarl founded Stockholm с 1250. In the Middle Ages it became Sweden's chief trade port, and in 1436 the capital. After years of conflict between the Swedes and Danes, Gustav I Vasa liberated the city from Danish rule in 1523. It developed rapidly in the mid-17th century as Sweden became a great power, and it was Sweden's cultural centre by the 18th century. It was extensively redeveloped in the 19th century. The second largest port in Sweden (Göteborg being the first), it is the country's leading cultural, commercial, financial, and educational centre.
* * *▪ Swedencapital and largest city of Sweden. Stockholm is located at the junction of Lake Mälar (Mälaren) and Salt Bay (Saltsjön), an arm of the Baltic Sea, opposite the Gulf of Finland. The city is built upon numerous islands as well as the mainland of Uppland and Södermanland. By virtue of its location, Stockholm is regarded as one of the most beautiful capital cities in the world.Stockholm was first mentioned as a town in 1252 and was largely built by the Swedish ruler Birger Jarl. It grew rapidly as a result of a trade agreement made with the German city of Lübeck. This agreement ensured Lübeck merchants freedom from customs charges for their trade in Sweden, as well as the right to settle there. The city came to be officially regarded as the Swedish capital in 1436. After conflicts between the Danes and Swedes for many years, Stockholm was liberated from Danish rule by Gustav I Vasa in 1523.Stockholm developed rapidly in the mid-17th century as Sweden temporarily became a great power. The central government departments were then placed there, and the city became an independent administrative unit. The old city walls were torn down, and new districts grew up north and south of the “city between the bridges.” In the 18th century, fires destroyed large parts of the city, and stone buildings were constructed to replace the old wooden houses. Stockholm had by then become the cultural centre of Sweden; many of its literary societies and scientific academies date from this time.A new period of development began with industrialization in the 19th century, and the introduction of municipally organized cleaning (1859) and sanitation (1861) contributed to a rapid increase in population. During this time redevelopment took place in the medieval city nucleus, buildings were reconstructed, boulevards, avenues, and parks were laid out, and many of the city's present-day schools, museums, libraries, and hospitals were built. Many suburbs and satellite towns have subsequently developed.The original nucleus of the city is the “city between the bridges”—Gamla Stan (Old Town), consisting of Stads Island, Helgeands Island, and Riddar Island (see photograph—>). The buildings in this area are mainly from the 16th and 17th centuries. This well-preserved city nucleus, with the original network of streets and many of its buildings dating from the Middle Ages, is legally protected from change. Stads Island contains the Royal Palace; Storkyrkan, also called the Cathedral, or Church, of St. Nicolas; the German Church; the House of Lords; the government offices; the Stock Exchange; and a number of other notable buildings. Riddar Island is dominated by the Riddarholm Church. The House of Parliament and the National Bank are on Helgeands Island.These islands are connected by old bridges and modern overpasses to city districts occupying the mainland of Uppland to the north and that of Södermanland to the south. The chief northern districts are Norrmalm, Vasastaden, Östermalm, Kungsholmen, and Stadshagen. Of these, Norrmalm is a modern shopping, business, and financial centre, while Kungsholmen has the City Hall and other municipal buildings. East of Gamla Stan lies the island of Djurgården, a cultural-recreational area that has several museums, including the Vasa Museum, which houses a salvaged Swedish warship dating from 1628.Stockholm is Sweden's leading industrial area. Its major industries include metal and machine manufacturing, paper and printing, foodstuffs, and chemicals. It is also the country's chief wholesale and retail centre and serves as the headquarters of many banks and insurance companies. Stockholm is also the second largest port in Sweden (Göteborg being the first). The national government's many offices are a major employer in the city, as are various educational, scientific, and cultural institutions.Stockholm is the chief educational centre in Sweden and is home to Stockholm University (1877), the Royal Institute of Technology (1827), and the Caroline Medical Institute. The city's leading cultural institutions include the Royal Theatre (the opera), the Concert Association (Stockholm Philharmonic Orchestra), and the Royal Dramatic Theatre. In 1912 Stockholm hosted the Olympic Games. Pop. (2005 est.) mun., 771,038; Greater Stockholm, 1,889,945.län (county) of east-central Sweden. It lies along the Baltic Sea and surrounds Stockholm, the national capital and seat of the län's governor, yet is administratively separate from that city. The län includes parts of the traditional landskap (provinces) of Södermanland (south) and Uppland (north). Stockholm län is a fertile lowland dotted with many lakes, and off the deeply indented coastline are numerous skerries (islands). Iron is mined in the northeastern region. Industries include metalworking, papermaking, and the manufacture of machinery and electrical equipment. Area 2,621 square miles (6,789 square km). Pop. (2005 est.) 1,872,900.
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См. также в других словарях:
Stockholm — Stockholm … Deutsch Wikipedia
Stockholm — • The capital of the Kingdom of Sweden, situated on Lake Maelar at the spot where it opens into the Saltsjö Catholic Encyclopedia. Kevin Knight. 2006. Stockholm Stockholm … Catholic encyclopedia
STOCKHOLM — STOCKHOLM, capital of sweden . The first Jew to settle in Stockholm was the gem carver and seal engraver, Aaron Isaac, who arrived in 1774. A year later the Jewish community was founded when the right of residence in the Swedish capital was… … Encyclopedia of Judaism
STOCKHOLM — Capitale de la Suède, Stockholm est connue, depuis le XIIIe siècle, comme forteresse d’abord, puis comme ville marchande. La ville est située sur le goulet par où le lac Mälar débouche sur la Baltique, à l’endroit où ce goulet croise une longue… … Encyclopédie Universelle
Stockholm — Stockholm. Stadtplan. Umgebung von Stockholm … Meyers Großes Konversations-Lexikon
Stockholm — Stockholm, WI U.S. village in Wisconsin Population (2000): 97 Housing Units (2000): 89 Land area (2000): 0.933067 sq. miles (2.416633 sq. km) Water area (2000): 0.029681 sq. miles (0.076873 sq. km) Total area (2000): 0.962748 sq. miles (2.493506… … StarDict's U.S. Gazetteer Places
Stockholm  — Stockholm, 1) Län in Schweden, an die Ostsee im Osten u. Südosten, übrigens an die Län Södermanland od. Nyköping u. Upsala grenzend, von letzterem getrennt durch die lange gegen Norden ins Land schneidende Mälarbucht; begreift Ost Upland od.… … Pierer's Universal-Lexikon
Stockholm  — Stockholm (hierzu der Stadtplan, mit Karte der Umgebung von S.), Haupt und Residenzstadt des Königreichs Schweden, liegt am Ausfluß des Mälar in die Ostsee (Salzsee genannt), die einen insel und schärenreichen Busen bildet, ist durch Eisenbahnen… … Meyers Großes Konversations-Lexikon
Stockholm — (latin Holmia), er hovedstad i Sverige og landets største by. Administrativt er byen en kommune i Stockholms län, med 743.703 indbyggere i den indre by og 1.823.210 indbyggere inklusive forstæder og länet. Da Stockholm er landets hovedstad, er… … Danske encyklopædi
Stockholm, SD — U.S. town in South Dakota Population (2000): 105 Housing Units (2000): 57 Land area (2000): 0.438795 sq. miles (1.136475 sq. km) Water area (2000): 0.006148 sq. miles (0.015922 sq. km) Total area (2000): 0.444943 sq. miles (1.152397 sq. km) FIPS… … StarDict's U.S. Gazetteer Places
Stockholm, WI — U.S. village in Wisconsin Population (2000): 97 Housing Units (2000): 89 Land area (2000): 0.933067 sq. miles (2.416633 sq. km) Water area (2000): 0.029681 sq. miles (0.076873 sq. km) Total area (2000): 0.962748 sq. miles (2.493506 sq. km) FIPS… … StarDict's U.S. Gazetteer Places