soul


soul
soullike, adj.
/sohl/, n.
1. the principle of life, feeling, thought, and action in humans, regarded as a distinct entity separate from the body, and commonly held to be separable in existence from the body; the spiritual part of humans as distinct from the physical part.
2. the spiritual part of humans regarded in its moral aspect, or as believed to survive death and be subject to happiness or misery in a life to come: arguing the immortality of the soul.
3. the disembodied spirit of a deceased person: He feared the soul of the deceased would haunt him.
4. the emotional part of human nature; the seat of the feelings or sentiments.
5. a human being; person.
6. high-mindedness; noble warmth of feeling, spirit or courage, etc.
7. the animating principle; the essential element or part of something.
8. the inspirer or moving spirit of some action, movement, etc.
9. the embodiment of some quality: He was the very soul of tact.
10. (cap.) Christian Science. God; the divine source of all identity and individuality.
11. shared ethnic awareness and pride among black people, esp. black Americans.
12. deeply felt emotion, as conveyed or expressed by a performer or artist.
13. See soul music.
adj.
14. of, characteristic of, or for black Americans or their culture: soul newspapers.
[bef. 900; ME; OE sawl, sawol; c. D ziel, G Seele, ON sal, Goth saiwala]
Syn. 1. spirit. 4. heart. 7. essence, core, heart.

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I
Immaterial aspect or essence of a person, conjoined with the body during life and separable at death.

The concept of a soul is found in nearly all cultures and religions, though the interpretations of its nature vary considerably. The ancient Egyptians conceived of a dual soul, one surviving death but remaining near the body, while the other proceeded to the realm of the dead. The early Hebrews did not consider the soul as distinct from the body, but later Jewish writers perceived the two as separate. Christian theology adopted the Greek concept of an immortal soul, adding the notion that God created the soul and infused it into the body at conception. In Islam the soul is believed to come into existence at the same time as the body but is everlasting and subject to eternal bliss or torment after the death of the body. In Hinduism each soul, or atman, was created at the beginning of time and imprisoned in an earthly body; at death the soul is said to pass to a new body according to the laws of karma. Buddhism negates the idea of a soul, asserting that any sense of an individual self is illusory.
II
(as used in expressions)
transmigration of souls
All Souls' Day

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▪ religion and philosophy
      in religion and philosophy, the immaterial aspect or essence of a human being, that which confers individuality and humanity, often considered to be synonymous with the mind or the self. In theology, the soul is further defined as that part of the individual which partakes of divinity and often is considered to survive the death of the body.

      Many cultures have recognized some incorporeal principle of human (human body) life or existence corresponding to the soul, and many have attributed souls to all living things. There is evidence even among prehistoric (prehistoric religion) peoples of a belief in an aspect distinct from the body and residing in it. Despite widespread and longstanding belief in the existence of a soul, however, different religions and philosophers have developed a variety of theories as to its nature, its relationship to the body, and its origin and mortality.

      Among ancient peoples, both the Egyptians (Egyptian religion) and the Chinese conceived of a dual soul. The Egyptian ka (breath) survived death but remained near the body, while the spiritual ba proceeded to the region of the dead. The Chinese distinguished between a lower, sensitive soul, which disappears with death, and a rational principle, the hun, which survives the grave and is the object of ancestor worship.

      The early Hebrews (Judaism) apparently had a concept of the soul but did not separate it from the body, although later Jewish writers developed the idea of the soul further. Old Testament references to the soul are related to the concept of breath and establish no distinction between the ethereal soul and the corporeal body. Christian (Christianity) concepts of a body-soul dichotomy originated with the ancient Greeks (Greek religion) and were introduced into Christian theology at an early date by St. Gregory of Nyssa (Gregory of Nyssa, Saint) and by St. Augustine. (Augustine, Saint)

      Ancient Greek concepts of the soul varied considerably according to the particular era and philosophical school. The Epicureans (Epicureanism) considered the soul to be made up of atoms like the rest of the body. For the Platonists (Platonism), the soul was an immaterial and incorporeal substance, akin to the gods yet part of the world of change and becoming. Aristotle's (Aristotle) conception of the soul was obscure, though he did state that it was a form inseparable from the body.

      In Christian theology, St. Augustine spoke of the soul as a “rider” on the body, making clear the split between the material and the immaterial, with the soul representing the “true” person. However, although body and soul were separate, it was not possible to conceive of a soul without its body. In the European Middle Ages, St. Thomas Aquinas (Aquinas, Thomas, Saint) returned to the Greek philosophers' concept of the soul as a motivating principle of the body, independent but requiring the substance of the body to make an individual.

      From the Middle Ages onward, the existence and nature of the soul and its relationship to the body continued to be disputed in Western philosophy. To René Descartes (Descartes, René), man was a union of the body and the soul, each a distinct substance acting on the other; the soul was equivalent to the mind. To Benedict de Spinoza (Spinoza, Benedict de), body and soul formed two aspects of a single reality. Immanuel Kant (Kant, Immanuel) concluded that the soul was not demonstrable through reason, although the mind inevitably must reach the conclusion that the soul exists because such a conclusion was necessary for the development of ethics and religion. To William James (James, William) at the beginning of the 20th century, the soul as such did not exist at all but was merely a collection of psychic phenomena.

      Just as there have been different concepts of the relation of the soul to the body, there have been numerous ideas about when the soul comes into existence and when and if it dies. Ancient Greek beliefs were varied and evolved over time. Pythagoras held that the soul was of divine origin and existed before and after death. Plato and Socrates also accepted the immortality of the soul, while Aristotle considered only part of the soul, the noûs, or intellect, to have that quality. Epicurus believed that both body and soul ended at death. The early Christian philosophers adopted the Greek concept of the soul's immortality and thought of the soul as being created by God and infused into the body at conception.

      In the Hindu (Hinduism) religion, each atman (“breath,” or “soul”) is considered to have been created at the beginning of time and imprisoned in an earthly body at birth. At the death of the body, the atman passes into a new body, its position in the Chain of Being determined by karma, or the cumulative consequences of actions. The cycle of death and rebirth ( samsara) is eternal according to some Hindus but others say it persists only until the soul has attained karmic perfection, thus merging with the Absolute. Buddhism negates the concept of atman, asserting that any sense of the individual soul or self is illusory.

      The Muslim (Islām) concept, like that of the Christian, holds that the soul comes into existence at the same time as the body; thereafter, it has a life of its own, its union with the body being a temporary condition.

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Universalium. 2010.

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