smog


smog
smogless, adj.
/smog, smawg/, n.
1. smoke or other atmospheric pollutants combined with fog in an unhealthy or irritating mixture.
v.t.
3. to cover or envelop with or as if with smog.
[1900-05; SM(OKE) + (F)OG1]

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Polluted air over a community.

The term, a combination of "smoke" and "fog," was popularized in the early 20th century and now commonly refers to the pall of automotive or industrial origin that lies over many cities. Sulfurous smog results from the use of sulfur-bearing fossil fuels, particularly coal, and is aggravated by dampness. Photochemical smog requires neither smoke nor fog. Nitrogen oxides and hydrocarbon vapours emitted from automobiles and other sources undergo reactions in the presence of sunlight that produce a light brownish coloration of the atmosphere, reduced visibility, plant damage, irritation of the eyes, and respiratory distress.

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 community-wide polluted air. Although the term is derived from the words smoke and fog, it is commonly used to describe the pall of automotive or industrial origin that lies over many cities, and its composition is variable (see video—>). The term was probably first used in 1905 by H.A. Des Voeux to describe atmospheric conditions over many British towns. It was popularized in 1911 by Des Voeux's report to the Manchester Conference of the Smoke Abatement League of Great Britain on the more than 1,000 “smoke-fog” deaths that occurred in Glasgow and Edinburgh during the autumn of 1909.

      At least two distinct types of smog are recognized, sulfurous smog and photochemical smog. Sulfurous smog results from a high concentration of sulfur oxides in the air and is caused by the use of sulfur-bearing fossil fuels, particularly coal. This type of smog is aggravated by dampness and a high concentration of suspended particulate matter in the air.

      Photochemical smog, which occurs most prominently in urban areas that have large numbers of automobiles, requires neither smoke nor fog. This type of smog has its origin in the nitrogen oxides and hydrocarbon vapours emitted by automobiles and other sources, which then undergo photochemical reactions in the lower atmosphere. The highly toxic gas ozone arises from the reaction of nitrogen oxides with hydrocarbon vapours in the presence of sunlight, and some nitrogen dioxide is produced from the reaction of nitrogen oxide with sunlight. The resulting smog causes a light brownish coloration of the atmosphere, reduced visibility, plant damage, irritation of the eyes, and respiratory distress.

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Universalium. 2010.

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