- Sino-Japanese War
/suy"noh jap"euh neez', -nees', -jap'euh neez", -nees"/1. the war (1894-95) between China and Japan over the control of Korea that resulted in the nominal independence of Korea and the Chinese cession to Japan of Formosa and the Pescadores.2. the war that began in 1937 as a Japanese invasion of China and ended with the World War II defeat of Japan in 1945.
* * *Either of two conflicts between China and Japan in the 19th and 20th centuries.The first (1894–95), over Korea , marked the emergence of Japan as a world power and demonstrated the weakness of China. Though Korea had long been China's most important client state, Japan became interested in it for its natural resources and its strategic location. After Japan opened Korea to foreign trade in 1875, tensions between radical, pro-Japanese Koreans, who favoured modernization, and conservative Korean government officials, who were supported by China, brought China and Japan into conflict. Foreign observers predicted an easy victory for the more massive Chinese forces, but Japan scored overwhelming victories on both land and sea. In the Treaty of Shimonoseki, China recognized the independence of Korea and ceded Taiwan, the Pescadores, and the Liaodong Peninsula (the last of which Japan was later forced to return) to Japan. The second conflict (1937–45) denotes the period of China's resistance to Japan's aggression in Chinese territory after Japan had established itself in Manchuria; it ended with Japan's defeat in World War II. See also Manchukuo; Marco Polo Bridge Incident; Nanjing Massacre; Tonghak Uprising.
* * *▪ 1894-95(1894–95), conflict between Japan and China that marked the emergence of Japan as a major world power and demonstrated the weakness of the Chinese empire. The war grew out of conflict between the two countries for supremacy in Korea. Korea had long been China's most important client state, but its strategic location opposite the Japanese islands and its natural resources of coal and iron attracted Japan's interest. In 1875 Japan, which had begun to adopt Western technology, forced Korea to open itself to foreign, especially Japanese, trade and to declare itself independent from China in its foreign relations.Japan soon became identified with the more radical modernizing forces within the Korean government, while China continued to sponsor the conservative officials gathered around the royal family. In 1884 a group of pro-Japanese reformers attempted to overthrow the Korean government, but Chinese troops under Gen. Yuan Shikai rescued the King, killing several Japanese legation guards in the process. War was avoided between Japan and China by the signing of the Li-Itō Convention, in which both nations agreed to withdraw troops from Korea.In 1894, however, Japan, flushed with national pride in the wake of its successful modernization program and its growing influence upon young Koreans, was not so ready to compromise. In that year, Kim Ok-kyun, the pro-Japanese Korean leader of the 1884 coup, was lured to Shanghai and assassinated, probably by agents of Yuan Shikai. His body was then put aboard a Chinese warship and sent back to Korea, where it was quartered and displayed as a warning to other rebels. The Japanese government took this as a direct affront, and the Japanese public was outraged. The situation was made more tense later in the year when the Tonghak rebellion broke out in Korea, and the Chinese government, at the request of the Korean king, sent troops to aid in dispersing the rebels. The Japanese considered this a violation of the Li-Itō Convention, and they sent 8,000 troops to Korea. When the Chinese tried to reinforce their own forces, the Japanese sank the British steamer Kowshing, which was carrying the reinforcements, further inflaming the situation.War was finally declared on Aug. 1, 1894. Although foreign observers had predicted an easy victory for the more massive Chinese forces, the Japanese had done a more successful job of modernizing, and they were better equipped and prepared. Japanese troops scored quick and overwhelming victories on both land and sea. By March 1895 the Japanese had successfully invaded Shandong (Shantung) province and Manchuria and had fortified posts that commanded the sea approaches to Beijing. The Chinese sued for peace.In the Treaty of Shimonoseki (Shimonoseki, Treaty of), which ended the conflict, China recognized the independence of Korea and ceded Taiwan, the adjoining Pescadores, and the Liaodong Peninsula in Manchuria.China also agreed to pay a large indemnity and to give Japan trading privileges on Chinese territory. This treaty was later somewhat modified by Russian fears of Japanese expansion, and the combined intercession of Russia, France, and Germany forced Japan to return the Liaodong Peninsula to China.China's defeat encouraged the Western powers to make further demands of the Chinese government. In China itself, the war triggered a reform movement that attempted to renovate the government; it also resulted in the beginnings of revolutionary activity against the Qing dynasty rulers of China.▪ 1937-45(1937–45), conflict that broke out when China began full-scale resistance to the expansion of Japanese influence in its territory (which had begun in 1931). In an effort to unseat the Nationalist (Nationalist Party) government of Chiang Kai-shek, the Japanese occupied large areas of eastern China in 1937–38. A stalemate then ensued, and Japanese forces were diverted to Southeast Asia and to the Pacific theatre of World War II against the Western Powers and their allies beginning in late 1941. Japan's defeat in that by the Allies in 1945 ended its occupation of China.
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Sino-Japanese War — There were two wars known as the Sino Japanese War : The First Sino Japanese War (1894 1895) between China (the Qing Dynasty) and Japan (the Empire of Japan), primarily over control of Korea. The Second Sino Japanese War (1937 1945) between… … Wikipedia
Sino-Japanese War — (1894–1895) The result of a dispute between China and Japan over influence in Korea, which was rooted in an ongoing rivalry between the two nations for dominance in the region. Through the Treaty of Kanghwa in 1876, China had de facto allowed… … Encyclopedia of the Age of Imperialism, 1800–1914
Sino-Japanese War — noun a war between China and Japan (1894 and 1895) over the control of the Korean Peninsula; China was overwhelmingly defeated at Port Arthur • Syn: ↑Chino Japanese War • Regions: ↑Korea, ↑Korean Peninsula, ↑Dae Han Min Gook, ↑Han Gook,… … Useful english dictionary
Sino-Japanese War — /ˌsaɪnoʊ dʒæpəniz ˈwɔ/ (say .suynoh japuhneez waw) noun 1. a war between Japan and China, 1894–95, over the control of Korea. 2. a war resulting from Japanese aggression against China; it began in 1937, and, within 18 months, Japan had occupied… … Australian English dictionary
Sino-Japanese War — n. war between China and Japan that took place between 1894 and 1895 over control of Korea; war between China and Japan that took place between 1931(continuing seriously in 1937) and 1945 as part of World War II … English contemporary dictionary
Second Sino-Japanese War — Part of the Pacific War of World War II (from 1941) … Wikipedia
First Sino-Japanese War — Japanese troops during the Sino Japanese war … Wikipedia
Chinese armies in the Second Sino-Japanese War — The Second Sino Japanese War was fought between the Chinese and Japanese armies, mostly on Chinese soil, during the late 1930s and early 1940s. Western historians generally view the Second Sino Japanese War as a theater of World War II. During… … Wikipedia
Motives of the Second Sino-Japanese War — The Second Sino Japanese War was not just a war between Japan and China, but involved many nations that had different vested interests that influenced their positions and actions taken during different phases of this war. It is clear that China… … Wikipedia
List of Japanese campaigns of the Second Sino-Japanese War — This is a list of the campaigns and military conflicts of the Japanese during the Second Sino Japanese War. It is not comprehensive.Prior operations and events*Shantung Incident (1927 ndash;1928) *Mukden Incident (July 1931) *Harbin Incident… … Wikipedia