serotonin


serotonin
/ser'euh toh"nin, sear'-/, n. Biochem.
a neurotransmitter, derived from tryptophan, that is involved in sleep, depression, memory, and other neurological processes.
[1945-50; SERO- + TONE + -IN2]

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Chemical (5-hydroxytryptamine, or 5-HT) derived from the amino acid tryptophan.

It occurs in brain and intestinal tissue, platelets, and certain connective-tissue cells and is a component of many animal venoms (e.g., wasp, toad). A strong stimulator of blood-vessel constriction and a neurotransmitter, serotonin concentrates in certain brain areas, especially the midbrain and hypothalamus. Some cases of depression are apparently caused by reduced amounts or activity of serotonin in the brain; many antidepressants counteract that condition. Excessive brain serotonin activity may cause migraine headaches and nausea. LSD may act by inhibiting the action of serotonin.

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also called  5-hydroxytryptamine,  

      a chemical substance that is derived from the amino acid tryptophan. It occurs in the brain, intestinal tissue, blood platelets, and mast cells and is a constituent of many venoms, including wasp venom and toad venom. Serotonin is a potent vasoconstrictor and functions as a neurotransmitter. It is concentrated in certain areas of the brain, especially the midbrain and the hypothalamus, and changes in its concentration are associated with several mood disorders. Some cases of mental depression are apparently caused by reduced quantities or reduced activity of serotonin in the brain. Several antidepressant drugs achieve their effect by inhibiting the body's physiological inactivation of serotonin, resulting in the accumulation of that neurotransmitter in the brain (and a consequent elevation of mood). Conversely, excessive serotonin activity in the brain appears to cause such symptoms as migraines and nausea. The hallucinogenic compound LSD may act by inhibiting the action of serotonin.

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Universalium. 2010.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • serotonin — serotonin. См. серотонин. (Источник: «Англо русский толковый словарь генетических терминов». Арефьев В.А., Лисовенко Л.А., Москва: Изд во ВНИРО, 1995 г.) …   Молекулярная биология и генетика. Толковый словарь.

  • Serotonin — Serotonin, 5 Hydroxytryptamin, im Tier und Pflanzenreich weit verbreitetes, durch Hydroxylierung und anschließende Decarboxylierung aus Tryptophan entstehendes biogenes Amin; Gewebshormon; wirkt im Zentralnervensystem als Transmitter… …   Deutsch wörterbuch der biologie

  • serotonin — neurotransmitting chemical, 1948, coined from sero , comb. form of SERUM (Cf. serum) (q.v.) + ton(ic) + chemical suffix IN (Cf. in) (2) …   Etymology dictionary

  • serotonin — serotònīn m <G serotonína> DEFINICIJA biol. kem. prirodni sastojak krvi i različitih tkiva, osobito moždanog; povećava tonus i peristaltiku tankog crijeva i suženje kapilara ETIMOLOGIJA v. serum + grč. tónos: napetost + in …   Hrvatski jezični portal

  • serotonin — [sir΄ə tō′nin, ser΄ə tō′nin] n. [ SERO + TON(IC) + IN1] a complex amine, C10H12N2O, found in blood, the brain, etc. or produced synthetically: it constricts the blood vessels and contracts smooth muscle tissue, and is important both as a… …   English World dictionary

  • Serotonin — Strukturformel Allgemeines Name Serotonin Andere Namen …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Serotonin — chembox ImageFileL1 = Serotonin (5 HT).svg ImageSizeL1 = 145px ImageFileR1 = Serotonin 3D vdW.png ImageSizeR1 = 145px IUPACName = 5 Hydroxytryptamine or 3 (2 aminoethyl) 1 H indol 5 ol OtherNames = Section1 = Chembox Identifiers CASNo = 50 67 9… …   Wikipedia

  • serotonin — A vasoconstrictor, liberated by blood platelets, that inhibits gastric secretion and stimulates smooth muscle; present in relatively high concentrations in some areas of the central nervous system (hypothalamus, basal ganglia), and occurring in… …   Medical dictionary

  • Serotonin — Se|ro|to|nin [Kurzw. aus ↑ Serum, ↑ Tonus u. ↑ in (3)], das; s; Syn.: 5 Hydroxytryptamin (5 HT), (systematisch:) 3 (2 Aminoethyl)indol 5 ol: in Tier u. Pflanzenreich weit verbreitetes biogenes Amin. S. wirkt im menschlichen Organismus als… …   Universal-Lexikon

  • serotonin — 5 hydroxytryptamine; n. a compound widely distributed in the tissues, particularly in the blood platelets, intestinal wall, and central nervous system. Serotonin is thought to play a role in inflammation similar to that of histamine and it is… …   The new mediacal dictionary


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