/sut"yeuh gru'heuh, seuht yah"greuh-/, n. (sometimes l.c.)(in India) the policy of passive resistance inaugurated by Mohandas Gandhi in 1919 as a method of gaining political and social reforms.[1915-20; < Hindi, equiv. to Skt satya truth + agraha strong attachment, persistence]
* * *Philosophy of nonviolent protest, or passive resistance.Mohandas K. Gandhi introduced it in South Africa (1906) and, from 1917, developed it in India in the period leading up to independence from Britain. Satyagraha seeks to conquer through submission. It involves refusing to submit to or cooperate with anything perceived as wrong, while adhering to the principle of nonviolence in order to maintain the tranquillity of mind required for insight and understanding. The principle played a significant role in the U.S. civil rights movement led by Martin Luther King. See also civil disobrdience.
* * *Hindi“insistence on truth” or “zeal for truth”concept introduced in the early 20th century by Mahatma Gandhi (Gandhi, Mohandas Karamchand) to designate a determined but nonviolent resistance to evil. Gandhi's satyagraha became a major tool in the Indian struggle against British imperialism and has since been adopted by protest groups in other countries.According to this philosophy, satyagrahis—practitioners of satyagraha—achieve correct insight into the real nature of an evil situation by observing a nonviolence of the mind, by seeking truth in a spirit of peace and love, and by undergoing a rigorous process of self-scrutiny. In so doing, the satyagrahi encounters truth in the absolute. By his refusal to submit to the wrong or to cooperate with it in any way, the satyagrahi asserts this truth. Throughout his confrontation with the evil, he must adhere to nonviolence, for to employ violence would be to lose correct insight. A satyagrahi always warns his opponents of his intentions; satyagraha forbids any tactic suggesting the use of secrecy to one's advantage. Satyagraha includes more than civil disobedience; its full range of application extends from the details of correct daily living to the construction of alternative political and economic institutions. Satyagraha seeks to conquer through conversion; in the end, there is neither defeat nor victory but rather a new harmony.Satyagraha draws from the ancient Indian ideal of ahimsa (“noninjury”), which is pursued with particular rigour by Jains (Jainism). In developing ahimsa into a modern concept with broad political consequences, as satyagraha, Gandhi also drew from the writings of Leo Tolstoy (Tolstoy, Leo) and Henry David Thoreau (Thoreau, Henry David), from the Bible, and from the Bhagavadgita, the great Sanskrit epic. Gandhi first conceived satyagraha in 1906 in response to a law discriminating against Asians that was passed by the British colonial government of the Transvaal in South Africa. In 1917 the first satyagraha campaign in India was mounted in the indigo-growing district of Champaran. During the following years, fasting and economic boycotts were employed as methods of satyagraha, until the British left India in 1947.Critics of satyagraha, both in Gandhi's time and subsequently, have argued that it is unrealistic and incapable of universal success, since it relies upon a high standard of ethical conduct in the opponent, the representative of “evil,” and demands an unrealistically strong level of commitment from those struggling for social amelioration. Nonetheless, satyagraha played a significant role in the civil rights movement led by Martin Luther King, Jr. (King, Martin Luther, Jr.), in the United States and has spawned a continuing legacy in South Asia itself.
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Satyagraha — (Sanskrit: सत्याग्रह satyāgraha) ist eine von Mahatma Gandhi entwickelte Grundhaltung, die (als politische Strategie) im Kern darauf beruht, die Vernunft und das Gewissen des Gegners anzusprechen durch die eigene Gewaltlosigkeit (non violence,… … Deutsch Wikipedia
Satyagraha — Saltar a navegación, búsqueda Satiagraja es una variedad de resistencia sin violencia desarrollada por el indio Mahatma Gandhi (1869 1948). सत्याग्रह, en escritura devánagari. satyāgraha, en el sistema IAST de transliteración. Gandhi desarrolló… … Wikipedia Español
satyagraha — Indian form of passive resistance, 1920, in writings of M.K. Gandhi, from Skt. satyagraha insistence on truth, from satya truth + agraha pertinacity … Etymology dictionary
Satyagraha — [Sanskrit »Ergreifen der Wahrheit«], Zentralgedanke der Philosophie M. Gandhis, die in der gewaltlosen Durchsetzung des als wahr Erkannten gipfelt; der Begriff wurde v. a. durch die gleichnamige, von Gandhi angeregte Bewegung bekannt, die… … Universal-Lexikon
satyagraha — [sut′yə gru΄hə] n. [< Hindi, lit., a grasping for truth < Sans satyā, truth + graha, grasping] the doctrine of Mohandas Gandhi, emphasizing passive resistance and noncooperation … English World dictionary
Satyagraha — For the opera, see Satyagraha (opera). Satyagraha[pronunciation?] (Sanskrit: सत्याग्रह satyāgraha), loosely translated as insistence on truth satya(truth) agraha(insistence) soul force  or truth force is a particular philosophy and practice… … Wikipedia
Satyagraha — La Satyagraha (du Sanskrit सत्याग्रह) ou « étreinte de la vérité » (satya = vérité, agraha = saisie) est le principe de non violence par la désobéissance civile que Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi a instauré. Gandhi notait: « En… … Wikipédia en Français
satyagraha — noun Etymology: New Sanskrit satyāgraha, from Sanskrit satya truth + āgraha persistence Date: 1920 pressure for social and political reform through friendly passive resistance practiced by M. K. Gandhi and his followers in India … New Collegiate Dictionary
satyagraha — noun The policy of nonviolent resistance as used by during the struggle for Indian independence. We also discussed whether the campaign should follow the Gandhian principles of non violence or what the Mahatma called satyagraha, a non violence… … Wiktionary
satyagraha — Filosofía de la protesta pacífica, o resistencia pasiva. Mohandas K. Gandhi la introdujo en Sudáfrica (1906) y, desde 1917, la desarrolló en India durante el período que culminó con su independencia de Inglaterra. El objetivo de la satyagraha es… … Enciclopedia Universal