Santa Cruz


Santa Cruz
/san"teuh kroohz"/; for 3 also Sp. /sahn"tah krddoohs"/
1. a city on the coast of California. 41,483.
2. an island in NW Santa Barbara Islands.
3. a city in central Bolivia. 149,230.
4. See St. Croix (def. 1).

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City (pop., 2001: 1,116,059), east-central Bolivia.

Founded by Spaniards from Paraguay in 1561 at what is now San José de Chiquitos, it was attacked repeatedly by Indians until 1595. It then was moved to its present location and renamed Santa Cruz de la Sierra. In 1811 its inhabitants declared their independence from Spain. Bolivia's largest city, it is a trade centre for crops, including sugarcane and rice, grown in the surrounding area. It has an oil refinery and is the seat of a university.

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in full  Santa Cruz de la Sierra  

      city, east-central Bolivia, situated in the hot, tropical lowlands at 1,365 feet (416 metres) above sea level. Founded by Spaniards from Paraguay in 1561 at what is now San José de Chiquitos, it was attacked repeatedly by Indians until 1595, when it was moved to its present location along the Piray River and renamed Santa Cruz de la Sierra. Its inhabitants declared their independence from Spain in 1811, and the city was recaptured only briefly by royalist forces. In 1950 a highway to Cochabamba was completed. Railways provide access to Brazil, Argentina, and southern Bolivia, and the city's international airport is the country's busiest.

      Santa Cruz has grown rapidly since the late 20th century, largely because of the expansion of agriculture (notably soybeans, sugarcane, and rice) and petroleum and natural gas mining in the surrounding valleys. The city produces soybean oil, dairy and meat products, refined sugar, wood products, leather, and alcohol. Oil refining is also important. Santa Cruz is the seat of Gabriel René Moreno Autonomous University (1879) and other educational institutions. By the turn of the 21st century, the population of Santa Cruz had surpassed that of La Paz, Bolivia's administrative capital, making Santa Cruz the country's largest city. Pop. (2001) 1,113,582.

      city, seat (1850) of Santa Cruz county, west-central California, U.S. It lies on the north shore of Monterey Bay, at the foot of the Santa Cruz Mountains, and is about 80 miles (130 km) south of San Francisco. The area was first explored by the Spaniard Gaspar de Portolá (Portolá, Gaspar de) (1769), who named the hills above the river running through the area Santa Cruz, meaning “Holy Cross” in Spanish. It became the site of Mission Santa Cruz (founded 1791, reconstructed 1931; now preserved as a state historic park), the 12th in the California chain of 21 missions, and of the model Spanish colony (village) of Branciforte (1797). The area came under Mexican control in the 1820s, and soon Americans began arriving. After coming under U.S. control in 1846, the settlement progressed as a lumber, lime-processing, fishing, and agriculture centre. Beginning in the second half of the 20th century, the city experienced steady growth with increasing industrialization. Agriculture remains important, and the city's major industries now also include tourism, food processing, manufacturing, and high technology.

      The area's scenic beauty and mild climate are principal attractions. The locality is enhanced by clumps of redwood trees, which increase to forest proportions in the Santa Cruz Mountains just north of the city. Another feature of Santa Cruz is its magnificent sweep of beach, which attracts thousands of tourists. To accommodate these visitors, the city has built several seaside facilities, including a long wharf that extends a half mile into the bay. Surfing is a popular activity, and the city boasts its own surfing museum. The University of California (California, University of) at Santa Cruz was established in 1965. The central shopping district of Santa Cruz was severely damaged by an earthquake that struck central California on October 17, 1989. There are several state parks in and around the city. Inc. 1866. Pop. (1990) city, 49,040; Santa Cruz–Watsonville PMSA, 229,734; (2000) city, 54,593; Santa Cruz–Watsonville PMSA, 255,602.

 provincia (province), southern Argentina, lying within the region known as Patagonia and extending westward from the Atlantic Ocean to the Andean cordillera on the Chilean frontier. It is sparsely inhabited.

      Santa Cruz is a region of constant winds and dust storms that sweep over its dry tablelands and its arid, precipitous coast. In spite of the latitude, however, temperatures are moderated by the proximity of the ocean. The province's western rim includes forested Andean foothills and a number of beautiful glacial lakes, notably Lake Argentino, where tourism is the main economic activity.

  Perito Francisco P. Moreno National Park has an area of 444 square miles (1,150 square km) and includes the Andean divide between Pacific and Atlantic drainage. Los Glaciares National Park, which lies farther south and has an area of 1,722 square miles (4,459 square km), including Lake Argentino, was designated a UNESCO World Heritage site in 1981. Petrified Forest National Monument (1954) covers nearly 14 square miles (35 square km).

      Santa Cruz was part of the Patagonia National Territory from 1878 until it was made a separate national territory in 1884. In 1955 it achieved provincial status.

      There are sheep ranches in the sheltered canyons that cross the central desert, but little agriculture. Shipping services link its Atlantic ports, where wool and sheepskins from the interior are collected for shipment to Buenos Aires. Río Gallegos, the southernmost port of continental Argentina and the provincial capital, is also a centre of the sheep trade. Other ports are San Julián, Santa Cruz, and Puerto Deseado. Area 94,187 square miles (243,943 square km). Pop. (2001) 196,958.

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Universalium. 2010.