sanction


sanction
sanctionable, adj.sanctionative, adj.sanctioner, n.sanctionless, adj.
/sangk"sheuhn/, n.
1. authoritative permission or approval, as for an action.
2. something that serves to support an action, condition, etc.
3. something that gives binding force, as to an oath, rule of conduct, etc.
4. Law.
a. a provision of a law enacting a penalty for disobedience or a reward for obedience.
b. the penalty or reward.
5. Internat. Law. action by one or more states toward another state calculated to force it to comply with legal obligations.
v.t.
6. to authorize, approve, or allow: an expression now sanctioned by educated usage.
7. to ratify or confirm: to sanction a law.
8. to impose a sanction on; penalize, esp. by way of discipline.
[1555-65; < L sanction- (s. of sanctio), equiv. to sanct(us) (ptp. of sancire to prescribe by law) + -ion- -ION]
Syn. 6. permit.
Ant. 1. disapproval. 6. disapprove.

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      in the social sciences, a reaction (or the threat or promise of a reaction) by members of a social group indicating approval or disapproval of a mode of conduct and serving to enforce behavioral standards of the group. Punishment (negative sanction) and reward (positive sanction) regulate conduct in conformity with social norms (see norm). Sanctions may be diffuse—i.e., spontaneous expressions by members of the group acting as individuals—or they may be organized—i.e., actions that follow traditional and recognized procedures. Sanctions therefore include not only the organized punishments of law but also the formal rewards (e.g., honours and titles) and the informal scorn or esteem by members of a community.

      In societies without formal legal institutions, such as courts of law, sanctions are often imposed directly by the wronged individual or group. Reaction is in a socially approved manner and in a form considered proportional to the injury. This may include ridiculing, duelling, injuring, seizing of property, or killing the offender or a member of his group. Among the Eskimo, for example, the appropriate punishment for a man who steals another man's wife is to be ridiculed in a nasty song made up by the injured man. Social context, as well as the kind of offense, determines the type of sanction invoked: legal, religious, and moral sanctions can all operate. A breach of norms committed within a kin group may call for religious sanctions, although the same deed involving different kin groups would invoke jural sanctions.

      Sanctions, in addition to functioning as a mechanism of social control, also serve to integrate a society, affirming social beliefs and restating their validity when breached.

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Universalium. 2010.

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  • sanction — [ sɑ̃ksjɔ̃ ] n. f. • XVIIIe; « précepte » XIVe; lat. sanctio, de sancire « prescrire » I ♦ 1 ♦ Hist., dr. Acte par lequel le souverain, le chef du pouvoir exécutif revêt une mesure législative de l approbation qui la rend exécutoire. Pragmatique… …   Encyclopédie Universelle

  • sanction — sanc·tion 1 / saŋk shən/ n 1: a punitive or coercive measure or action that results from failure to comply with a law, rule, or order a sanction for contempt 2: explicit or official approval 3: an economic or military coercive measure adopted usu …   Law dictionary

  • sanction — sanc‧tion [ˈsæŋkʆn] noun 1. sanctions [plural] ECONOMICS official orders or laws stopping trade, communication etc with another country as a way of forcing political changes: sanctions against • The US imposed tough trade sanctions against Cuba …   Financial and business terms

  • Sanction — • Sanction signifies the authoritative act whereby the legislator gives a law value and binding force for its subjects Catholic Encyclopedia. Kevin Knight. 2006. Sanction     Sanction      …   Catholic encyclopedia

  • Sanction — Sanc tion, n. [L. sanctio, from sancire, sanctum to render sacred or inviolable, to fix unalterably: cf. F. sanction. See {Saint}.] 1. Solemn or ceremonious ratification; an official act of a superior by which he ratifies and gives validity to… …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • sanction — [n1] authorization acquiescence, allowance, approbation, approval, assent, authority, backing, confirmation, consent, countenance, encouragement, endorsement, fiat, go ahead*, green light*, leave, nod, okay*, permission, permit, ratification,… …   New thesaurus

  • Sanction — Sanc tion, v. t. [imp. & p. p. {Sanctioned}; p. pr. & vb. n. {Sanctioning}.] To give sanction to; to ratify; to confirm; to approve. [1913 Webster] Would have counseled, or even sanctioned, such perilous experiments. De Quincey. [1913 Webster]… …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • sanction — sanction, social sanction Any means by which conformity to socially approved standards is enforced. Sanctions can be positive (rewarding behaviour that conforms to wider expectations) or negative (punishing the various forms of deviance); and… …   Dictionary of sociology

  • sanction — ► NOUN 1) a threatened penalty for disobeying a law or rule. 2) (sanctions) measures taken by a state to coerce another to conform to an international agreement or norms of conduct. 3) official permission or approval. ► VERB 1) give official… …   English terms dictionary

  • sanction — [saŋk′shən] n. [< Fr or L: Fr < L sanctio < sanctus: see SAINT] 1. the act of a recognized authority confirming or ratifying an action; authorized approval or permission 2. support; encouragement; approval 3. something that gives binding …   English World dictionary

  • Sanction — (v. lat.), die feierliche Bestätigung eines Beschlusses, Gesetzes, Vertrags, wodurch dieselben für heilig u. unverletzlich erklärt werden. Oft heißt ein solcher Vertrag selbst S., wie z.B. die Pragmatische S. (s.d.). Daher Sanctioniren, ein… …   Pierer's Universal-Lexikon


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