Salisbury


Salisbury
/sawlz"ber'ee, -beuh ree, -bree/ or, esp. for 4, 5, /salz"-/, n.
1. Harrison, 1908-93, U.S. journalist and writer.
2. Robert Arthur Talbot Gascoyne Cecil /tawl"beuht gas"koyn, tal"-/, 3rd Marquis of, 1830-1903, British statesman: prime minister 1885-86, 1886-92, 1895-1902.
3. former name of Harare.
4. a city in Wiltshire, in S England: cathedral. 104,700.
5. a city in central North Carolina. 22,677.
6. a city in E Maryland. 16,429.

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formerly  New Sarum 
 city in Salisbury district, administrative and historic county of Wiltshire, England, at the confluence of the Rivers Avon and Wiley. It has functioned historically as the principal town of Wiltshire and is the seat of an Anglican bishop.

      The origins of Salisbury lie in Old Sarum, an Early Iron Age fort 1.5 miles (2.5 km) north taken over by the Romans. Under the Saxons it became an important town, and by the 11th century it possessed a mint. The Normans built a castle on the mound, and Old Sarum became a bishopric when the see was transferred from Sherborne in 1075. The present cathedral was founded in the neighbouring valley, site of modern Salisbury, in 1220, and a new city quickly developed around it. The Black and Grey friaries were both established in the 13th century. An earthen rampart was built around the city in 1310, and soon afterward gates were added. The cloth and wool trades flourished in the Middle Ages, and the making of cutlery also became prominent.

      Today the city centre remains much as it was in medieval times, laid out in gridiron fashion. The cathedral and a large number of timber-framed buildings survive. Salisbury is a tourist and market centre. Principal occupations are cattle and poultry marketing, engineering, brewing, leatherwork, and printing. Pop. (2001) 43,355.

 city, seat (1867) of Wicomico county, southeastern Maryland, U.S., at the head of the Wicomico River in the south-central part of the Delmarva Peninsula, south of the Delaware state line. It was established in 1732 and named for the English city of Salisbury in Wiltshire. Historic landmarks include Old Green Hill Church (1733), Poplar Hill Mansion (c. 1805), and Pemberton Hall (1741). The first stone marker of the Mason and Dixon Line was laid 7 miles (11 km) northwest of Salisbury in 1768.

      Salisbury developed as a commercial transportation centre for the peninsula and became the second port of Maryland. Its economy is based on poultry farming, light industries (petroleum-handling equipment, electronic products, pharmaceuticals, plastic film and sheet, and manufactured housing), and tourism (duck hunting and fishing). The Ward Museum of Wildfowl Art has collections of decoys and paintings of wildfowl. Salisbury State University, part of the University of Maryland (Maryland, University of) system, was established in 1925. The Wicomico Demonstration Forest is nearby. Inc. city, 1872. Pop. (1990) 20,592; (2000) 23,743.

      city, seat (1755) of Rowan county, west-central North Carolina, U.S. It is situated near High Rock Lake, roughly midway between Greensboro (northeast) and Charlotte (southwest). Originally home to many Native American peoples, including the Catawba, the area was settled by Scotch-Irish and then Germans in the 1740s. Salisbury was incorporated in 1755, presumably named for the city of Salisbury in Wiltshire, England.

      The pioneer Daniel Boone (Boone, Daniel) lived along the banks of the nearby Yadkin River in the 1750s and '60s, and in 1787 Andrew Jackson (Jackson, Andrew) was admitted to the bar in Salisbury after studying law with Judge Spruce Macay. During the American Revolution it served as temporary headquarters for both the troops of the British general Lord Cornwallis (Cornwallis, Charles Cornwallis, 1st Marquess and 2nd Earl, Viscount Brome, Baron Cornwallis of Eye) and the American general Nathanael Greene (Greene, Nathanael) in February 1781, before the Battle of Guilford Courthouse (Guilford Courthouse, Battle of); a small skirmish between the two occurred at Old Trading Ford, 6 miles (10 km) east. A large Confederate prison was established in the city in 1861 during the American Civil War and operated, often under deplorable conditions, until Salisbury was occupied in 1865 by Union troops under General George Stoneman, who burned the prison. Salisbury National Cemetery (1865) contains the graves of some 12,000 Union prisoners who died there.

      Salisbury serves a largely agricultural region raising corn (maize), soybeans, and livestock. There is some light, diversified manufacturing, including textiles and apparel. It is the site of a U.S. Veterans Administration hospital, Catawba College (1851), Livingstone College (1879), and Rowan-Cabarrus Community College (1963). The North Carolina Transportation Museum is located in nearby Spencer, and Boone's Cave State Park is just north in Churchland. Pop. (1990) 23,087; (2000) 26,462.

      district, administrative and historic county of Wiltshire, southern England, centred on the historic city of Salisbury and occupying the southern part of the county. It is a predominantly rural area in which cattle and produce are raised. The Ministry of Defense owns much of the land and maintains a number of camps there. The district is rich in prehistoric monuments, including Stonehenge, Neolithic burial sites, and Iron Age strongholds. Area 388 square miles (1,005 square km). Pop. (2001) 114,614.

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Universalium. 2010.

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