Rutland


Rutland
/rut"leuhnd/, n.
1. a city in W Vermont. 18,436.
2. Rutlandshire.

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      city, seat (1784) of Rutland county, south-central Vermont, U.S. It lies between the Green Mountains and the Taconic Range on Otter Creek. In 1759 the site was an outpost on the military road built by the British general Sir Jeffrey Amherst (Amherst, Jeffery Amherst, 1st Baron) across Vermont, connecting forts on Lake Champlain (Champlain, Lake) with the Connecticut River valley. Chartered in 1761, the settlement was named for Rutland, Massachusetts. The first settlers, New England Yankees, arrived in 1770. During the American Revolution, Forts Rutland (originally Picket) and Ranger were built in the vicinity. Rutland was the capital of Vermont from 1784 to 1804. It is the home of Vermont's oldest newspaper, the Rutland Daily Herald, published continuously since 1794.

      After Rutland was incorporated as a village in 1847, railroad construction and marble quarrying stimulated growth, and about 1880 it was Vermont's largest municipality. In 1886 the three surrounding marble-producing communities (Proctor, Rutland town, and West Rutland town) withdrew from Rutland, and since then Rutland city (incorporated in 1892) has been second in size to Burlington. Marble remains economically important. Manufactures include castings, plywood, machinery, and airplane parts. Rutland is the seat of the College of St. Joseph the Provider (founded 1957). It is also the headquarters of Green Mountain National Forest, and winter sports (especially at nearby Pico Peak) and tourism provide additional sources of income.

      The Vermont Marble Exhibit, with more than 100 kinds of marble and granite, is at Proctor, a few miles northwest of Rutland; the Norman Rockwell Museum is 2 miles (3 km) east. Pop. (1990) 18,230; (2000) 17,292.

      county, western Vermont, U.S. It is bounded by New York state (the border formed in part by Lake Champlain (Champlain, Lake) and the Poultney River) and the Taconic Mountains to the west and by the Green Mountains to the east. The county is bisected north-south by Otter Creek, the longest stream in Vermont. Additional streams are the Castleton, Mill, Hubbardton, Mettawee, Clarendon, and Cold rivers. Other waterways are the Chittenden Reservoir and Lakes Bomoseen, St. Catherine, and Hortonia. Recreational areas include Green Mountain National Forest and the Killington and Pico ski resorts. State parks are located at Gifford Woods, Half Moon Pond, and Lakes Bomoseen and St. Catherine. The Appalachian National Scenic Trail follows the crest line of the Green Mountains. County timberland comprises maple, white pine, red oak, ash, and birch.

      The county was formed in 1781. Rutland, one of Vermont's largest cities, is the county seat, a major railway hub, and a former state capital (1784–1804). Historical monuments mark the sites where a battle of the American Revolution was fought (July 7, 1777) in Hubbardton and where politician Stephen A. Douglas (Douglas, Stephen A) was born (1813) in Brandon. Notable buildings include Castleton State College (founded 1787) in Castleton, the Old Stone Shop (built 1848) in Wallingford, and Wilson Castle (built 1888) in Proctor.

      The county's diverse economy includes marble quarrying, the manufacture of aircraft parts, and tourism. Area 932 square miles (2,414 square km). Pop. (2000) 63,400; (2007 est.) 63,270.

      unitary authority and historic county in the East Midlands of England. Rutland is the smallest county in England.

      In ancient times the area was sparsely populated oak woodland, but there was an important Roman settlement at Great Casterton. The present county was settled by Angles and Saxons in the 5th and 6th centuries CE. Rutland is first mentioned as a separate county in 1159. The county played little subsequent role in English history.

      Rutland is a rural upland area. It contains many villages and the historic market towns of Oakham and Uppingham, each with a famous school. Oakham also has a large 14th-century church and a 12th-century castle that is one of the finest examples of late Norman domestic architecture. Rutland has many other fine old churches and houses, whose high quality is partly due to local sandstone beds that have provided excellent building stone. Rutland is the site of the noted Cottesmore foxhunt. Apart from agriculture, the main economic activity, the county has some industry producing electrical products, cement, plastics, and clothing. In the late 1970s the largest reservoir in Great Britain—Rutland Water, covering more than 3,000 acres (1,200 hectares)—was created in the centre of the county to serve the growing urban areas of Northamptonshire and Peterborough. The reservoir is a centre for fishing, birdwatching, and boating and the site of a nature reserve. Oakham is the county town (seat). Area 147 square miles (382 square km). Pop. (2005 est.) 37,300.

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Universalium. 2010.

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