rubidium


rubidium
rubidic, adj.
/rooh bid"ee euhm/, n. Chem.
a silver-white, metallic, active element resembling potassium, used in photoelectric cells and radio vacuum tubes. Symbol: Rb; at. wt.: 85.47; at. no.: 37; sp. gr.: 1.53 at 20°C.
[1860-65; < NL, equiv. to L rubid(us) red (in allusion to the two red lines in its spectrum) + -ium -IUM]

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 chemical element of Group 1 (Ia) in the periodic table, the alkali metal group. Rubidium is the second most reactive metal and is very soft, with a silvery-white lustre.

      Rubidium was discovered (1861) spectroscopically by German scientists Robert Bunsen (Bunsen, Robert Wilhelm) and Gustav Kirchhoff (Kirchhoff, Gustav Robert) and named after the two prominent red lines of its spectrum. Rubidium and cesium often occur together in nature. Rubidium, however, is more widely scattered and seldom forms a natural mineral; it is found only as an impurity in other minerals, ranging in content up to 5 percent in such minerals as lepidolite, pollucite, and carnallite. Brine samples have also been analyzed that contain up to 6 parts per million of rubidium.

      In the principal commercial process of rubidium production, small amounts of rubidium are obtained from the mixture of alkali metal carbonates (carbonate) remaining after lithium salts are extracted from lepidolite. Primarily a potassium carbonate, this by-product also contains approximately 23 percent rubidium and 3 percent cesium carbonates.

      The primary difficulty associated with the production of pure rubidium is that it is always found together with cesium in nature and is also mixed with other alkali metals. Because these elements are very similar chemically, their separation presented numerous problems before the advent of ion-exchange methods and ion-specific complexing agents such as crown ethers. Once pure salts have been prepared, it is a straightforward task to convert them to the free metal. This can be done by electrolysis of the fused cyanide or by reduction with calcium or sodium followed by fractional distillation.

      Rubidium is difficult to handle because it ignites spontaneously in air, and it reacts violently with water to yield a solution of rubidium hydroxide (RbOH) and hydrogen, which bursts into flames; rubidium is therefore kept in dry mineral oil or an atmosphere of hydrogen. If a metal sample has a large enough surface area, it can burn to form superoxides. Rubidium superoxide (RbO2) is a yellow powder. Rubidium peroxides (Rb2O2) can be formed by oxidation of the metal with the required amount of oxygen. Rubidium forms two other oxides (Rb2O and Rb2O3).

      It is used in photoelectric cells (photoelectric cell) and as a “getter” in electron tubes (electron tube) to scavenge the traces of sealed-in gases. Rubidium atomic clocks (atomic clock), or frequency standards, have been constructed, but they are not as precise as cesium atomic clocks. However, aside from these applications, rubidium metal has few commercial uses and is of very minor economic significance. High prices and an uncertain and limited supply discourage the development of commercial uses.

      Natural rubidium makes up about 0.01 percent of Earth's (Earth) crust; it exists as a mixture of two isotopes (isotope): rubidium-85 (72.15 percent) and the radioactive rubidium-87 (27.85 percent), which emits beta rays with a half-life of about 6 × 1011 years. A large number of radioactive isotopes have been artificially prepared, from rubidium-79 to rubidium-95. One estimate of the age of the solar system as 4.6 billion years is based on the ratio of rubidium-87 to strontium-87 in a stony meteorite. Rubidium easily loses its single valence electron but no others, accounting for its oxidation number of +1, although several compounds that contain the anion, Rb-, have been synthesized.

      Rubidium and cesium are miscible in all proportions and have complete solid solubility; a melting-point minimum of 9 °C (48 °F) is reached. Rubidium forms a number of mercury amalgams. Because of the increased specific volume of rubidium, as compared with the lighter alkali metals, there is a lesser tendency for it to form alloy systems with other metals.

atomic number
37
atomic weight
85.47
melting point
38.9 °C (102 °F)
boiling point
688 °C (1,270 °F)
specific gravity
1.53 (at 20 °C, or 68 °F)
oxidation states
+1, -1 (rare)
electronic config.
2-8-18-8-1 or [Kr]5s1
James L. Dye
 

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Universalium. 2010.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Rubidium — Krypton ← Rubidium → Strontium K …   Wikipédia en Français

  • RUBIDIUM — Du latin rubidus , rouge foncé Symbole chimique: Rb Numéro atomique: 37 Masse atomique: 85,47 g Point de fusion: 38,9 0C Point d’ébullition: 688 0C Densité (à 20 0C): 1,53. Métal alcalin mou, d’éclat blanc argenté, découvert par voie… …   Encyclopédie Universelle

  • Rubidium — Rb, Atomgew. 85,5, spez. Gew. 1,52, Schmelzpunkt 38,5; weitverbreitetes Metall, aber stets nur in Spuren meistens neben Kaliumverbindungen vorkommend. Bei der technischen Verarbeitung des Carnallits wird es als Rubidiumalaun gewonnen, aus dem die …   Lexikon der gesamten Technik

  • Rubidium — Ru*bid i*um, n. [NL., fr. L. rubidus red, fr. rubere to be red. So called from two dark red spectroscopic lines by means of which it was discovered in the lepidolite from Rozena, Moravia. See {Rubicund}.] (Chem.) A rare metallic element of the… …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • Rubidĭum — Rb, Alkalimetall, findet sich in der Natur nicht gediegen, aber in Verbindungen sehr verbreitet als gewöhnlicher Begleiter des Cäsiums und andrer Alkalimetalle. So tritt es, aber stets nur in geringer Menge und als unwesentlicher Bestandteil, im… …   Meyers Großes Konversations-Lexikon

  • Rubidium — Rubidĭum (chem. Zeichen Rb), weit verbreitetes, aber immer nur spurenweise auftretendes Alkalimetall, 1861 von Bunsen entdeckt, findet sich in einigen Mineralien, in Salzsolen, Mineralwässern und in den Abraumsalzen, dem Kalium ähnlich,… …   Kleines Konversations-Lexikon

  • rubidium — Symbol: Rb Atomic number: 37 Atomic weight: 85.47 Soft silvery metallic element, belongs to group 1 of the periodic table. Rb 97, the naturally occurring isotope, is radioactive. It is highly reactive, with properties similar to other elements in …   Elements of periodic system

  • rubidium — [ro͞o bid′ē əm] n. [ModL: so named (1861) by BUNSEN Robert Wilhelm & KIRCHHOFF Gustav Robert < L rubidus, red < ruber,RED (from the red lines in its spectrum) + IUM] a soft, silvery white, metallic chemical element, one of the alkali metals …   English World dictionary

  • Rubidium — krypton ← rubidium → strontium K ↑ Rb ↓ …   Wikipedia

  • Rubidium — Eigenschaften …   Deutsch Wikipedia


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