retrovirus


retrovirus
retroviral, adj.
/re'treuh vuy"reuhs, re"treuh vuy'-/, n., pl. retroviruses.
any of a family of single-stranded RNA viruses having a helical envelope and containing an enzyme that allows for a reversal of genetic transcription, from RNA to DNA rather than the usual DNA to RNA, the newly transcribed viral DNA being incorporated into the host cell's DNA strand for the production of new RNA retroviruses: the family includes the AIDS virus and certain oncogene-carrying viruses implicated in various cancers.
[1975-80; RETRO- + VIRUS]

* * *

Any of a group of viruses that, unlike most other viruses and all cellular organisms, carry their genetic blueprint in the form of RNA.

Retroviruses are responsible for some cancers and viral infections of animals, and they cause at least one type of human cancer. The retrovirus HIV is the cause of AIDS in humans. The name signifies that they use RNA to synthesize DNA, the reverse of the usual cell process. This process makes it possible for genetic material from a retrovirus to enter and become a permanent part of the genes of an infected cell.

* * *

▪ virus group
      any of a group of viruses that, unlike most other viruses and all cellular organisms, carry their genetic blueprint in the form of ribonucleic acid ( RNA). Retroviruses are responsible for certain cancers and slow virus infections of animals and cause at least one type of human cancer. They have also been identified as the cause of acquired immune deficiency syndrome ( AIDS) in humans, and they have been linked to one form of human hepatitis.

      Retroviruses are so named because, by means of a special enzyme called reverse transcriptase, discovered independently by Howard Temin and David Baltimore in 1971, they transcribe RNA into deoxyribonucleic acid ( DNA). This constitutes a reversal of the usual cellular processes of transcription of DNA into RNA. The action of reverse transcriptase makes it possible for genetic (genetics) material from a retrovirus to become permanently incorporated into the DNA genome of an infected cell and is widely used in biotechnology to synthesize genes.

* * *


Universalium. 2010.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • RÉTROVIRUS — Les rétrovirus sont des virus globulaires enveloppés, d’un diamètre de 110 à 125 nanomètres, très répandus dans le monde animal. Ils sont la cause de différentes formes de cancer, d’immunodéficiences, dont le sida, et de dégénérescences du… …   Encyclopédie Universelle

  • Retrovirus — m. Biol., Med. Virus de ácido ribonucleico que posee una enzima que le permite convertir su material genético en ácido desoxirribonucleico cuando ha penetrado en una célula viva. Al grupo de los retrovirus pertenece el virus del sida. * * *… …   Enciclopedia Universal

  • retrovirus — m. microb. Virus de simetría cúbica, dotado de RNA y de transcriptasa inversa (responsable de transcribir el genoma RNA en DNA) que es capaz de insertar su material genético en el genoma de las células infectadas. De los diversos retrovirus… …   Diccionario médico

  • retrovirus — 1977, earlier retravirus (1974), from re(verse) tra(nscriptase) + VIRUS (Cf. virus). So called because it contains reverse transcriptase, an enzyme that uses RNA instead of DNA to encode genetic information, which reverses the usual pattern.… …   Etymology dictionary

  • retrovírus — s. m. 2 núm. [Biologia, Medicina] Vírus cujo genoma é constituído por ácido ribonucleico simples.   ‣ Etimologia: retro + vírus …   Dicionário da Língua Portuguesa

  • retrovirus — m. Biol. Virus cuyo genoma está constituido por ARN que, por transcripción inversa, origina un ADN y lo incorpora a la célula huésped; p. ej., los virus de la leucemia, el sarcoma o el sida …   Diccionario de la lengua española

  • retrovirus — [re′trō vī΄rəs] n. any of a family (Retroviridae) of RNA viruses which have a virion that makes REVERSE TRANSCRIPTASE, including the viruses that cause leukemia and AIDS …   English World dictionary

  • Retrovirus — Retroviridae Rétrovirus …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Rétrovirus — Retroviridae Rétrovirus …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Retrovirus — Familie Retroviridae HI Virus (Grafik) Systematik Reich: Viren Ordnung: nicht klassifiziert …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Retrovirus — Taxobox | color = violet name = Retroviruses virus group = vi familia = Retroviridae subdivision ranks = Genera subdivision = Subfamily: Orthoretrovirinae : Alpharetrovirus : Betaretrovirus : Gammaretrovirus : Deltaretrovirus : Epsilonretrovirus …   Wikipedia


Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”

We are using cookies for the best presentation of our site. Continuing to use this site, you agree with this.