/koom"rahn/, n.See Khirbet Qumran.Also, Qûmran.
* * *Excavations less than a mile from the sea have revealed the ruins of buildings believed by some scholars to have been occupied by Essenes, the probable authors of the scrolls. The buildings include a scriptorium, a potter's workshop, and a flour mill; water was supplied through an aqueduct. The Essenes are thought to have founded a monastic community at Qumrān in the mid-2nd century BC. They temporarily abandoned the settlement after an earthquake and fire in 31 BC but later returned and lived there until Roman legions destroyed the community in AD 68.
* * *also spelled Kumranregion on the northwestern shore of the Dead Sea, notable since 1947 as the site of the caves where the Dead Sea Scrolls (q.v.) were first discovered. Excavations (since 1949) at a site called Khirbet Qumrān (Arabic: “Qumrān Ruins”), less than a mile from the sea and north of the waterway Wadi Qumrān, have revealed the ruins of buildings, believed by some scholars to have been occupied by a community of Essenes (Essene), who have been posited as the owners of the Scrolls.Excavations at Qumrān in the 1950s were led by the French archaeologist Roland de Vaux, whose workers revealed a complex of structures occupying an area about 260 by 330 feet (80 by 100 m). An extensive aqueduct system, fed by the Wadi Qumrān, traversed the site from the entrance in the northwest corner to the southern sections and filled as many as eight internal reservoirs (cisterns), as well as two baths. In the eastern part of the ruins stood the principal building, rectangular and large (more than 100 feet on a side), with a massive tower of stone and brick in its northwestern corner. East of this tower was a large room with five fireplaces, possibly a kitchen. South of the tower were discovered long benches in one room and evidence of an upper-story scriptorium, or writing room, in another—a low bench, three mud-brick tables, and two inkwells were found there.A length of aqueduct and a reservoir separated the scriptorium from a large assembly hall that may also have served as a refectory. Abutting the hall was a pantry stocked with hundreds of pottery jars. Archaeologists further identified a potter's workshop, two kilns, an oven, a flour mill, and a stable, but they observed that only a few other rooms might have been living quarters. A cemetery near Qumrān holds the remains of about 1,100 male adults; two lesser gravesites were reserved for some 100 women and children.The Essenes separated from the rest of the Jewish community in the 2nd century BC, when Jonathan Maccabeus, and, later, Simon Maccabeus, usurped the office of high priest, which conferred secular as well as religious authority. Simon felt compelled to persecute the Essenes, who opposed the usurpation. Hence, they fled into the wilderness with their leader, the Teacher of Righteousness.Some scholars hold that Essenes established a monastic community at Qumrān in the mid-2nd century BC, probably during the reign of Simon (143/142–135/134 BC) but no later than the time of John Hyrcanus (135/134–104 BC).Living apart, like other Essenian communities in Judaea, the members of the Qumrān community turned to apocalyptic visions of the overthrow of the wicked priests of Jerusalem and the ultimate establishment of their own community as the true priesthood and the true Israel. They devoted their time to study of the Scriptures, manual labour, worship, and prayer. Meals were taken in common as prophetic celebrations of the messianic banquet. The baptism they practiced symbolized repentance and entry into the company of the “Elect of God.”During the reign (37–4 BC) of Herod the Great, an earthquake (31 BC) and fire caused the temporary abandonment of Qumrān, but the community resumed its life there until the centre was destroyed (AD 68) by Roman legions under Vespasian. Until about AD 73 the site was garrisoned by Roman soldiers; during the Second Jewish Revolt (132–135), rebels under Bar Kokhba were based there.
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QUMRAN — QUMRAN, region on the northwest shore of the Dead Sea, which has become famous since 1947 as the site of the discovery of the dead sea scrolls . The name belongs more particularly to Wadi Qumran, a precipitous watercourse which runs down to the… … Encyclopedia of Judaism
Qumrán — Saltar a navegación, búsqueda Cuevas cercanas a Qumrán Qumrán (en hebreo קומראן) es un valle del Desierto de Judea en las costas occidentales del Mar Muerto cerca del Kibbutz de Kalia (Israel). La importancia de este uadi es la presencia de las… … Wikipedia Español
Qumran — [k ], Kumran, Khịrbet Qumran [x ; arabisch »Ruine von Qumran«], Ruinenstätte einer klosterähnlichen Anlage mit Nekropole am Nordwestende des Toten Meeres, nahe dem Wadi Qumran (Westjordanland); seit Mitte des 19. Jahrhunderts bekannt, jedoch… … Universal-Lexikon
Qumran — Qumrân 31° 44′ 27″ N 35° 27′ 31″ E / 31.740833, 35.458611 … Wikipédia en Français
QUMRAN — Le nom de Qumr n évoque des découvertes archéologiques faites depuis 1947 et qui se rangent parmi les plus sensationnelles de l’époque moderne par la qualité des textes littéraires qu’elles ont mis au jour. Toutefois, les trouvailles de Qumr n ne … Encyclopédie Universelle
Qumran — [koom rän′] region in NW Jordan, near the Dead Sea: site of the caves in which the Dead Sea Scrolls were found … English World dictionary
Qumran — For the country that features in Yes Minister, see here. Qumran ( ar. خربة قمران, he. חירבת קומראן, Khirbet Qumran ) is located on a dry plateau about a mile inland from the northwestern shore of the Dead Sea in the West Bank, just next to the… … Wikipedia
Qumran — Ruinenareal Qumran Khirbet Qumran (arabisch خربة قمران, DMG Ḫirbat Qumrān ‚die graue Ruine‘), meist nur Qumran oder Kumran genannt, heißt eine antike, in Ruinen erhaltene Siedlung auf einer flachen … Deutsch Wikipedia
Qumrân — 31° 44′ 27″ N 35° 27′ … Wikipédia en Français
Qumran — (Ḥirbet Qumrān) ► Torrente (uadi) del mar Muerto (Israel), en cuyas orillas radican las ruinas de un monasterio esenio. En las grutas de los alrededores se descubrieron, entre 1946 (o 1947) y 1956, unos manuscritos escritos en hebreo y en arameo… … Enciclopedia Universal