1. the language of the Inca civilization, presently spoken by about 7 million people in Peru, Ecuador, Bolivia, Chile, and Argentina.2. a member of an Indian people of Peru speaking Quechua.
* * *South American Indian population of the Andes Mountains from Ecuador to Bolivia.In the early 15th century the Quechua were conquered by the Chanca, who in turn were subdued by the Inca. Much of the traditional Quechua way of life endured under the Inca, but it was drastically altered by the 16th-century Spanish conquest. Traditional Quechua now lead isolated lives as marginal farmers in the high Andes. Their religion combines Roman Catholicism with folk beliefs. See also Quechuan languages.
* * *▪ peopleQuechua RunaSouth American Indians living in the Andean highlands from Ecuador to Bolivia. They speak many regional varieties of Quechua (Quechuan languages), which was the language of the Inca empire (though it predates the Inca) and which later became the lingua franca of the Spanish and Indians throughout the Andes.The Quechua have formed an important part of the agricultural backbone of Andean civilization since the early 15th century, when they were conquered by the Chancas, who were themselves subjugated by the Incas in the later years of that century.The Inca requirements of public service did not much disturb the traditional Quechua way of life. When the Spanish conquered the Inca empire in the 16th century, however, and the Quechua came under Spanish rule, Quechua society was drastically altered. The Spanish encomienda system of tribute required the Quechua to produce unfamiliar crops for the Spanish at the expense of their own food supply. The Spanish system, unlike its Inca predecessor, did not provide for the welfare of the labourer and his family during his term of forced labour. The Spanish concentrated the Quechua in larger, more populous villages than they were accustomed to, thus further straining Quechua political and social institutions. The Roman Catholic Church made additional demands on the time and resources of Christianized Quechua. A growing desire for the trappings of Spanish wealth even further alienated the Quechua from their own society. By the time Spanish rule ended in the 19th century, the Quechua had been so changed that many remained as servants on the grand haciendas and estates. Others went to the towns and cities of the lowlands to find employment, though some stayed in their mountainous homeland.In the early 21st century the Quechua lead isolated lives as marginal farmers in the high Andes. Their religion is an amalgam of Roman Catholicism and native folk beliefs. They practice their traditional fibre handicrafts, spinning wool and weaving fabrics for both domestic use and sale to outsiders. Because of the lack of distinct anthropological identity between Quechua speakers and those of Quechua heritage, population estimates in the early 21st century range between 13 million and 16 million. The Quechua have been the subject of numerous biological and medical studies aimed at understanding physiological adaptation to high-altitude living.
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См. также в других словарях:
Quechua — Quechua … Deutsch Wörterbuch
Quéchua — Quechua Pour les articles homonymes, voir Quechua (homonymie). Quéchua Runasimi Parlée en Argentine, Bolivie, Chili, Colombie, Équateur, Pérou Région Andes … Wikipédia en Français
quechua — [ ketʃwa ] n. m. • quichoa 1765; mot indigène ♦ Langue indienne comprenant plusieurs parlers, employée sur les hauts plateaux du Pérou et de la Bolivie. Le quechua fut la langue des Incas. On écrirait mieux quéchua. On dit aussi QUICHUA . ●… … Encyclopédie Universelle
quechua — QUÉCHUA adj. invar., s.f. invar. 1. s.f. invar. Populaţie amerindiană care trăieşte în ţinuturile muntoase din Peru, în vestul Boliviei şi în zona de frontieră cu Bolivia a statelor Argentina şi Chile. 2. adj. invar. Care aparţine sau este… … Dicționar Român
Quechua — [kech′wä, kech′wə] n. [Sp < Quechua qheswa, qhechwa, temperate valleys ] 1. pl. Quechuas or Quechua a member of a group of South American Indian peoples dominant in the former Inca Empire 2. the language of these peoples, now spoken widely in… … English World dictionary
quechua — ‘De un pueblo indígena americano, componente principal del Imperio incaico, asentado hoy especialmente en zonas andinas del Perú, Bolivia y el Ecuador’. Como sustantivo masculino, ‘lengua de los quechuas, la principal del Imperio incaico’. Esta… … Diccionario panhispánico de dudas
Quechua — Indian people of Peru and surrounding regions, 1840, from Spanish, from Quechua kechua plunderer, destroyer … Etymology dictionary
quechua — adjetivo,sustantivo masculino y femenino 1. De un conjunto de pueblos amerindios que viven en los Andes: una costumbre quechua. sustantivo masculino 1. Área: linguística Lengua andina, aún viva, hablada por los quechuas, que es oficial en el Perú … Diccionario Salamanca de la Lengua Española
Quechua — (spr ketschūa), Indianerstamm, s. Quichua … Meyers Großes Konversations-Lexikon
Quechua — (spr. ketschuá), Quichua, Kechua, Keschua, Ketschua oder Khetschua, ursprünglich Name eines Stammes der alten Peruaner am obern Apurimac, dann Bezeichnung der Hauptsprache des alten Inkareichs, eine der entwickeltsten Amerikas, noch gegenwärtig… … Kleines Konversations-Lexikon
quechua — (Quizá del nombre de una tribu peruana). 1. adj. Se dice del indígena que al tiempo de la colonización del Perú habitaba la región del Cuzco, y, por ext., de otros indígenas pertenecientes al Imperio incaico. U. t. c. s.) 2. Se dice de los… … Diccionario de la lengua española