praetor


praetor
praetorial /pree tawr"ee euhl, -tohr"-/, adj.
/pree"teuhr/, n.
(in the ancient Roman republic) one of a number of elected magistrates charged chiefly with the administration of civil justice and ranking next below a consul.
Also, pretor.
[1375-1425; late ME pretor < L praetor, for *praeitor leader, lit., one going before, equiv. to *praei-, var. s. of praeire to go before, lead (prae- PRAE- + -i-, base of ire to go) + -tor -TOR]

* * *

In ancient Rome, an officer with authority to judge cases of equity, responsibility for producing public games, and, in the absence of a consul, extensive authority in the government.

After a one-year term, a praetor typically went on to govern a province. Originally only a patrician magistrate could be a praetor, but from с 337 BC, the position was also open to plebeians. The number of praetors increased to eight by the 1st century BC, two for civil matters and six for specific courts. It continued to vary under different government leaders and emperors; by the late empire, only the city praetor for public games remained.

* * *

▪ Roman official
plural  Praetors, or Praetores,  

      in ancient Rome, a judicial officer who had broad authority in cases of equity, was responsible for the production of the public games, and, in the absence of consuls (consul), exercised extensive authority in the government.

      The institution of consuls arose c. 510 BC with the expulsion of the kings. There were two consuls, who not only controlled the treasury and held supreme authority in government but also led troops, necessitating their absence from Rome for extended periods. Originally, the title praetor was restricted to a magistrate, but c. 337 BC the office was opened to plebeians. Until c. 242 BC there was only one praetor who handled matters of equity between Roman citizens. At that time a second praetor was established to handle suits in which one or both parties were foreigners. The original office was renamed praetor urbanus, and the new office was called praetor peregrinus. At various times subsequently, the number of praetors varied. About 227 BC two more peregrine praetors were appointed for Sicily and Sardinia, and about 197 BC two more were appointed to administer Spain. Early in the 1st century BC the consul Lucius Cornelius Sulla increased the number of praetors to eight. Two continued to preside over civil matters while the six additional ones were assigned to specific courts: extortion, bribery, embezzlement, treason, assault, murder, and forgery. After one year of service they customarily went on to become provincial governors.

      From early times the praetor as a civil administrator issued an edict stating the procedure by which he would be guided. About 67 BC, he became bound by law to follow his edict. Ultimately, the edict, as modified over centuries, became one of the most important factors in molding and adapting the Roman law to new conditions and to the principles of equity and good faith. Under the emperor Hadrian in the 2nd century AD a “perpetual edict” was codified and published. By that time, however, praetorian jurisdiction had been circumscribed by the emperor. In the late Roman Empire most praetorships disappeared, but the praetor urbanus remained, with the responsibility of providing the public games.

* * *


Universalium. 2010.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Praetor — was a title granted by the government of Ancient Rome to men acting in one of two official capacities: the commander of an army, either before it was mustered or more typically in the field, or an elected magistrate assigned duties that varied… …   Wikipedia

  • PRAETOR — variae de hoc auctorum sententiae. Sunt enim, qui hoc nomine primum appellatos Consules dicunt, atque ita a Praeeundo deductum Praetoris nomen. Sed enim distinguere hunc a Consulib. videntur 12. Tabb. leges apud Cicer. l. 3. de Legg. Regio… …   Hofmann J. Lexicon universale

  • praetor — (n.) magistrate in ancient Rome (next in rank to consuls), early 15c., from L. praetor one who goes before, a consul as leader of an army, from prae before (see PRE (Cf. pre )) + root of ire to go (see ION (Cf. ion)) …   Etymology dictionary

  • Praetor — Pr[ae] tor, n. See {Pretor}. [1913 Webster] …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • Praetor — (lat.) war in der ersten Zeit der römischen Republik (bis 449 v. Chr.) der Name der nach her so genannten Konsuln; als dann die Plebejer durch die Licinischen Gesetze den Zutritt zum Konsulat erlangten, wurde von diesem die bis dahin in seinen… …   Meyers Großes Konversations-Lexikon

  • praetor — index judge Burton s Legal Thesaurus. William C. Burton. 2006 …   Law dictionary

  • Praetor — Praetor,   Prätor …   Universal-Lexikon

  • praetor — [prē′tər] n. [ME (northern) pretour < L, for * prae itor < praeire, to precede < prae , before (see PRE ) + ire, to go] a magistrate of ancient Rome, next below a consul in rank praetorial [prē tôr′ē əl] adj. praetorship n …   English World dictionary

  • Praetor — Die Praetur (eingedeutscht auch Prätur) war eines der höheren Ämter der römischen Ämterlaufbahn, des cursus honorum (im Regelfall das dritte Amt nach der Quästur und der Ädilität). Die Amtsinhaber wurden praetores (eingedeutscht: Prätoren)… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • praetor — also pretor noun Etymology: Middle English pretor, from Latin praetor Date: 15th century an ancient Roman magistrate ranking below a consul and having chiefly judicial functions • praetorial adjective • praetorship noun …   New Collegiate Dictionary


Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”

We are using cookies for the best presentation of our site. Continuing to use this site, you agree with this.