potlatch


potlatch
/pot"lach/, n.
1. (among American Indians of the northern Pacific coast, esp. the Kwakiutl) a ceremonial festival at which gifts are bestowed on the guests and property is destroyed by its owner in a show of wealth that the guests later attempt to surpass.
2. Pacific Northwest. a party or celebration.
[1835-45; < Chinook Jargon pátlac, pálac < Nootka palpa- (redupl. of PA- make ceremonial gifts in potlatch) + -c suffix marking iterative aspect]

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Ceremonial distribution of property and gifts practiced among the American Indians of the Northwest Pacific coast, particularly the Kwakiutl.

A potlatch is given by an heir or successor to assert and validate his newly assumed social position. Ceremonial formalities are observed in inviting guests, in speech making, and in distributing goods according to the social rank of the recipients. Great feasts and generous hospitality accompany the potlatch. The ceremony has been much studied by anthropologists for the light it sheds on the nature of property, wealth, prestige, and social status. See also gift exchange.

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▪ North American Indian custom
      ceremonial distribution of property and gifts to affirm or reaffirm social status, as uniquely institutionalized by the American Indians of the Northwest Pacific coast (Northwest Coast Indian). The potlatch reached its most elaborate development among the southern Kwakiutl from 1849 to 1925. Although each group had its characteristic version, the potlatch had certain general features. Ceremonial formalities were observed in inviting guests, in speechmaking, and in the distribution of goods by the donor according to the social rank of the recipients. The size of the gatherings reflected the rank of the donor. Great feasts and generous hospitality accompanied the potlatch, and the efforts of the kin group of the host were exerted to maximize the generosity. The proceedings gave wide publicity to the social status of donor and recipients because there were many witnesses.

      A potlatch was given by an heir or successor to assert and validate his newly assumed social position. Important events such as marriages, births, deaths, and initiations into secret societies were also occasions for potlatches; but trivial events were used just as often, because the main purpose of a potlatch was not the occasion itself but the validation of claims to social rank. The potlatch was also used as a face-saving device by individuals who had suffered public embarrassment and as a means of competition between rivals in social rank.

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Universalium. 2010.