Pope


Pope
/pohp/, n.
1. Alexander, 1688-1744, English poet.
2. John, 1822-92, Union general in the U.S. Civil War.
3. John Russell, 1874-1937, U.S. architect.

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died 1692, San Juan Pueblo, New Spain

Tewa Pueblo medicine man.

Believing he was guided by tribal ancestral spirits (kachinas), Popé led an Indian revolt in 1680 against the Spanish invaders in what is now the southwestern U.S. The rebellion, known as the Pueblo Revolt, drove the Spanish out of Santa Fe and temporarily restored the old Pueblo way of life. Popé was accorded great honours, but success made him despotic. Although he was eventually deposed, he was reelected Pueblo leader in 1688.

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▪ Tewa Pueblo leader
died 1692, San Juan Pueblo New Spain [now in New Mexico, U.S.]

      Tewa Pueblo who led an all-Indian revolt in 1680 against the Spanish invaders in what is now the southwestern United States, driving them out of Santa Fe and temporarily restoring the old Pueblo way of life.

      Little is known of Popé's life before 1675. In that year he was imprisoned by Spanish authorities on suspicion of witchcraft and of killing several missionaries. Since the expedition led by Francisco Vázquez de Coronado (Coronado, Francisco Vázquez de) that had begun Spanish colonization of the Southwest in 1540, hundreds of Pueblo individuals had been impressed into virtual slavery or, if they dared open resistance, executed. (The staff of the missions and garrisons established by the Spanish were often cruel and wanton; their own records indicate that they frequently engaged in beatings, maiming, rape, and other forms of torture, as well as execution by burning at the stake.) After his release from prison, Popé hid in Taos Pueblo (Pueblo Rebellion) to plan and organize what came to be known as the Pueblo Revolt. Popé believed that he was commanded by tribal ancestral spirits (kachinas) to restore traditional native customs, and other villages enthusiastically responded to news of the planned uprising.

      On Aug. 10, 1680, Popé led a united attack of almost all the Pueblo Indian tribes on the Spanish capital of Santa Fe, killing nearly 500. After 10 days nearly 1,000 besieged residents abandoned the city and fled to El Paso del Norte. Popé immediately set about erasing all vestiges of Spanish culture and the Christian religion. Restoring ancestral ways, he traveled from one pueblo to another in ceremonial dress. For a time he was accorded great honour, but success made him despotic; and after a few years, drought, enemy tribe forays, and internal dissension combined to depose him. He was, however, reelected Pueblo leader in 1688, shortly before his death. Although Spanish rule was reestablished in 1692, the alien domination was never as strong as before the time of Popé.

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Universalium. 2010.

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