- Pius IV
(Giovanni Angelo Medici) 1499-1565, Italian ecclesiastic: pope 1559-65.
* * *▪ popeoriginal name Giovanni Angelo de' Mediciborn March 31, 1499, Milan [Italy]died Dec. 9, 1565, Rome, Papal States [Italy]Italian pope (1559–65) who reconvened and concluded the Council of Trent (Trent, Council of).A canon lawyer, in 1545 he was ordained and consecrated archbishop of Ragusa and in 1547 was appointed papal vice legate for Bologna. He was made cardinal priest in 1549.After a long conclave Giovanni was elected pope on Dec. 25, 1559, as Pius IV. Though he had long agreed with those who saw a need for definite reforms, particularly of nepotism, in the Curia, he called his own nephew Charles Borromeo (Borromeo, Saint Charles), to Rome, where he created him cardinal deacon in 1560. Pius nevertheless took prompt action to bring Cardinal Carlo Carafa, his brother, Giovanni, and Pope Paul IV's nephews to trial, which resulted in their controversial execution on March 6, 1561. He concurrently collaborated with Borromeo in composing crucial letters appealing to Europe's Roman Catholic princes to resume the Council of Trent, which had been suspended since 1552.Despite the peace between France and Spain, many obstacles stood in the way of the council. The Holy Roman emperor Ferdinand I, still hoping for the return of the Lutherans to the Roman church, sympathized with doctrinal concessions in their favour; King Philip II of Spain, on the contrary, opposed any change and was cool toward reopening the council, and the Roman Curia was totally opposed to any doctrinal change, though willing to discuss the reform of abuses. Pius was prepared to concede communion in both kinds and perhaps also clerical marriage. He especially hoped to prevent France from following Germany into apostasy.Pius' bull of convocation was issued on Nov. 29, 1560; the opening session took place on Jan. 18, 1562. A year was spent in overcoming major differences, and the outcome was an almost unmitigated triumph for the papacy. With Borromeo as his chief adviser, Pius' conciliatory attitude calmed imperial opposition. The effective reforms of the council gradually restored the pastoral efficiency of the Roman Catholic church and represented the middle-of-the-road conservative Catholics. The council was dissolved on Dec. 4, 1563, and Pius confirmed its decrees and definitions in his bull Benedictus Deus (Jan. 26, 1564); on the following November 3, he published a summary of doctrine generally known as the Professio Fidei Tridentina (“Tridentine Profession of the Faith”), imposing it on the bishops as obligatory.Several important works that the council recommended or initiated but could not effectually carry out were given to Pius for completion; among these were drafting the Index of Forbidden Books and reforming the catechism, missal, and breviary. In 1564 he made Borromeo cardinal priest, designating him chief reformer of the Curia and head of the Consulta, thus making him secretary of state. Under the direction of Borromeo, the catechism was completed some months after Pius' death. Pius also encouraged St. Teresa of Ávila's celebrated Carmelite reform and reduced the powers of the Inquisition. Having revived the Roman university, he launched an energetic building program, patronizing Michelangelo.Pius did not long outlive the conclusion of the legal enactment of the Counter-Reformation, and his desire for a continued endeavour to reconvert the German Protestants died with him. During his last days the stiff taxation needed for his reform caused a conspiracy against him.
* * *
См. также в других словарях:
Pius X. — Pius X. Pius X., (Giuseppe Melchiorre Sarto; * 2. Juni 1835 in Riese, Lombardo Venetien; † 20. August 1914 in Rom) war von 1903 bis 1914 Papst der römisch katholischen Kirche und wurde von Pius XII. 1954 heiliggesprochen. Pius X … Deutsch Wikipedia
Pius — Pius, Päpste: 1) Pius I. (140 154/155 ?); nach dem Murator. Fragment ein Bruder des Hermas. Während seines Pontifikats wirkten in Rom der Theologe Marcion, der Philosoph Justin und der Gnostiker Valentin (* um 100, ✝ um 160). Heiliger (Tag:… … Universal-Lexikon
Pius — ist ein männlicher Vorname, der aus dem Lateinischen kommt und der Fromme (Gottesfürchtige) bedeutet. Der Name wird nur sehr selten im deutschen Sprachraum vergeben und dann oft in katholischen Familien. Die weibliche Form ist Pia, die… … Deutsch Wikipedia
Pius IX — Pope Pius IX † Catholic Encyclopedia ► Pope Pius IX (GIOVANNI MARIA MASTAI FERRETTI). Pope from 1846 78; born at Sinigaglia, 13 May, 1792; died in Rome, 7 February, 1878 … Catholic encyclopedia
Pius — is a male name, from the Latin word pius , the meaning of which is similar to the English pious from piety , meaning a desire and willingness to perform religious duties. The name is most commonly associated with popes, twelve of whom (including… … Wikipedia
Pius IX. — Pius IX. Pius IX. (* 13. Mai 1792 in Senigallia (Kirchenstaat) als Grafensohn Giovanni Maria Mastai Ferretti; † 7. Februar 1878 in Rom) war Papst von 1846 bis 1878. In sein Pontifikat − mit 31 Jahren und 8 Monaten das längste in der römisch katho … Deutsch Wikipedia
Pius V. — Pius V. in einer Darstellung von El Greco Wappen von Papst Pius V., mode … Deutsch Wikipedia
Pius XI. — Pius XI., 1930 Pius XI. (* 31. Mai 1857 in Desio (Lombardei); † 10. Februar 1939 in Rom) – bürgerlicher Name Achille Ambrogio Damiano Ratti – war Papst von 1922 bis 1939. Pius XI. widmete sich nach Leo XIII. der Soziallehre und pr … Deutsch Wikipedia
Pius X — Pope Pius X † Catholic Encyclopedia ► Pope Pius X (Giuseppe Melchiorre Sarto). Born 2 June, 1835, at Riese, Province of Treviso, in Venice. His parents were Giovanni Battista Sarto and Margarita (née Sanson); the former, a postman … Catholic encyclopedia
Pius — [pī′əs] 1. Pius II (born Enea Silvio de Piccolomini) 1405 64; pope (1458 64) 2. Pius VII (born Luigi Barnaba Chiaramonti) 1742 1823; pope (1800 23) 3. Pius IX (born Giovanni Maria Mastai Ferretti) 1792 1878; pope (1846 78) 4 … Universalium
Pius VI — Pope Pius VI † Catholic Encyclopedia ► Pope Pius VI (GIOVANNI ANGELICO BRASCHI). Born at Cesena, 27 December, 1717; elected 15 February, 1775; died at Valence, France, 29 Aug., 1799. He was of a noble but impoverished family, and… … Catholic encyclopedia