Phocis


Phocis
/foh"sis/, n.
an ancient district in central Greece, N of the Gulf of Corinth: site of Delphic oracle.

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Ancient territory, central Greece.

It extended north from the Gulf of Corinth over the range of Mount Parnassus to the Locrian Mountains, which formed the northern frontier. Its chief towns were Elateia, Delphi, and Daulis. Mainly a pastoral region, its early history is obscure. Traditionally, the Phocians controlled the sanctuary and oracle at Delphi, but they lost control after a war with neighbouring Greek states с 590 BC. Phocis was allied with Sparta in the Peloponnesian War (431–404 BC) and was conquered by Philip II of Macedon in 346 BC.

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▪ ancient district, Greece
Modern Greek  Fokís,  

      district of ancient central Greece, extending northward from the Gulf of Corinth over the range of Mount Parnassus to the Locrian Mountains, which formed the northern frontier. In the fertile Cephissus River valley, between the two mountain ranges, lay most of the Phocian settlements: Amphicleia (or Amphicaea), Tithorea, Elatea, Hyampolis, Abae, and Daulis. A mountain spur running south from Mount Parnassus to the gulf separated the city of Crisa and its port, Cyrrha, on the Crisaean plain from the port city of Anticyra.

      Its early history is obscure; Phocis was mainly pastoral, and the population was thought to be of the Aeolians, one of the earliest Greek-speaking peoples in the peninsula. Before the 6th century BC, however, Boeotians from the east and Thessalians from the north encroached on their territory. Traditionally, the Phocians controlled the sanctuary of Delphi; pilgrims landing at Cyrrha on their way to the sacred oracle were tolled heavily on the road through Crisa. Galled by this impiety, a coalition of Greek states in about 590 BC proclaimed a sacred war, destroyed Crisa, and put the sanctuary under the control of a council administered jointly by neighbouring communities. The irresolute conduct of the Phocians contributed to the Greek defeat by Persia at Thermopylae (480); at Plataea they were on the Persian side. In 449 or 448 the Spartans expelled the Phocians from Delphi, but, with the help of their new ally, Athens, they soon recaptured it. When Athenian land power declined, Phocis wavered again and became an ally of Sparta in the Peloponnesian War (431–404 BC).

      In the 4th century Phocis was constantly endangered by Boeotian aggression. During the Corinthian War (395–387) Phocis helped Sparta to invade Boeotia, but afterward it submitted to the growing power of Boeotia's principal city, Thebes. Phocians took part in the Theban Epaminondas' campaigns in the Peloponnese (370–366) but not in the successful campaign of Mantineia (362). In return for this negligence, the Thebans secured a penal decree against them (for religious offenses). The Phocians retaliated by seizing Delphi, which they looted to finance mercenaries for an invasion of Boeotia and Thessaly; they were driven out of Delphi by Philip II of Macedon, who split their towns into villages and exacted an indemnity (346). During the 3rd century Phocis passed under the control of Macedonia; it was annexed to the Aetolian League in 196.

      Ancient Phocis corresponds to the southeastern portions of present Fthiótis and Fokís nomoi (departments), whose capitals are Lamía and Amphissa (qq.v.), respectively. The agriculture of the area includes wheat, olives, and grapes; livestock are also important. Bauxite is mined in the Parnassian range, and there is an aluminum-reducing plant at Aspra Spítia, near ancient Anticyra. The small port of Itéa, near the site of Cyrrha, serves tourists on their way to Delphi.

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Universalium. 2010.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • PHOCIS — regio Achaiae, inter Boeotiam et Aetoliam ad Occidentem in qua Delphi urbs, et Parnassus mons cum Helicone. Ov id. Met. l. 1. v. 313. Septarat Aonios Actaeis Phocis ab arvis. Dionys. v. 437. Τῷ δ᾿ ἐπὶ Φωκὶς ἄρουρα πρὸς ἀντολίην τε καὶ ἠῶ,… …   Hofmann J. Lexicon universale

  • Phocis — Phocis, s. Phokis …   Kleines Konversations-Lexikon

  • Phocis — Phocis, Landschaft in Mittelgriechenland, an Lokris, Doris, Thessalien und Böotien gränzend, etwa 36 QM. groß, enthielt Delphi (s.d.). Die Phocenser waren Dorier u. spielten eine untergeordnete Rolle, bis sie, wegen Benutzung des dem delphischen… …   Herders Conversations-Lexikon

  • Phocis — [fō′sis] ancient region in central Greece, on the Gulf of Corinth: chief city, Delphi …   English World dictionary

  • Phocis — Infobox Pref GR name = Phocis name local = Φωκίδα country = Greeceprefecture = Phocis periph = Central Greece capital = Amfissa population = 49,576 population as of = 2005 pop rank = 47th pop dens = 23.4 popdens rank = 51st area = 2,120.564 area… …   Wikipedia

  • Phocis — Antiguo territorio en Grecia central. Se extendía desde el golfo de Corinto hacia el norte por la cadena montañosa del monte Parnaso, hasta limitar con las montañas de Locri. Sus principales ciudades eran Elatea, Delfos y Daulis. La información… …   Enciclopedia Universal

  • Phocis — geographical name region central Greece N of Gulf of Corinth • Phocian adjective or noun …   New Collegiate Dictionary

  • Phocis — Lage von Phokis und Delphi in Griechenland Phokis (altgr. Φωκίς) war eine antike Gebirgslandschaft in Mittelgriechenland. Sie hatte eine Fläche von ca. 1615 km². Da Phokis nicht reich an natürlichen Ressourcen war, rührte seine Bedeutung… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Phocis — noun A periphery in the southwest Central Greece and north northeast of the Peloponnese. The capital is presently located in its largest city Amphissa …   Wiktionary

  • PHOCIS —    a province of ancient Greece, W. of Boeotia, and N. of the Gulf of Corinth; was traversed by the mountain range of Parnassus, and contained the oracle of Apollo at Delphi; allied to Athens in the Peloponnesian War, the Phocians were crushed in …   The Nuttall Encyclopaedia


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