Peter


Peter
/pee"teuhr/, n.
1. Also called Simon Peter. died A.D. 67?, one of the 12 apostles and the reputed author of two of the Epistles.
2. either of these two Epistles in the New Testament, I Peter or II Peter.
3. a word formerly used in communications to represent the letter P.
4. a male given name.
[ME; OE Petrus < L < Gk Pétros stone, trans. of Syriac kefa]

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(as used in expressions)
Abelard Peter
Altgeld John Peter
Behrens Peter
Lawrence Peter Berra
Brook Sir Peter Stephen Paul
Carey Peter Philip
Cooper Peter
Davies Sir Peter Maxwell
Debye Peter
Doherty Peter Charles
Dunne Finley Peter
Emerson Peter Henry
Fabergé Peter Carl
Giannini Amadeo Peter
Goldmark Peter Carl
Hall Sir Peter Reginald Frederick
Handke Peter
Kropotkin Peter Alekseyevich
Lorre Peter
Martins Peter
Matthiessen Peter
Medawar Sir Peter Brian
Minuit Peter
Mitchell Peter Dennis
Müller Johannes Peter
O'Toole Peter Seamus
Peter Damian Saint
Peter the Great
Peter the Cruel
Peter the Apostle Saint
Peter's Pence
Roget Peter Mark
Rose Peter Edward
Rubens Peter Paul
Saint Peter's Basilica
Schubert Franz Peter
Scott Sir Peter Markham
Seeger Peter
Sellars Peter
Sellers Peter
Shaffer Peter Levin
Stuyvesant Peter
Taylor Peter Hillsman
Ustinov Sir Peter Alexander
John Peter Wagner
Waldo Peter
Weiss Peter Ulrich
Peter John Weissmuller
Zenger John Peter
Northcliffe of Saint Peter Alfred Charles William Harmsworth Viscount
Karl Peter Ulrich duke von Holstein Gottorp

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▪ Byzantine emperor
also called  Peter of Courtenay , French  Pierre de Courtenay  
born c. 1165
died 1219?

      briefly Latin emperor of Constantinople, from 1217 to 1219.

      The son of Peter of Courtenay (died 1183) and a grandson of the French king Louis VI, he obtained the counties of Auxerre and Tonnerre by his first marriage. He later married Yolande (died 1219), sister of Baldwin I and Henry of Flanders, first and second Latin emperors of Constantinople; she brought him the marquessate of Nevers.

      Chosen successor to Henry of Flanders when Henry died without sons in 1216, Peter was consecrated emperor in the church of San Lorenzo Fuori le Mura, Rome, by Pope Honorius III on April 9, 1217. Accompanied by an army and a papal legate, he subsequently embarked at Brindisi on ships furnished by the Venetians, for whom he tried to conquer Durazzo from Theodore Ducas, Greek despot of Epirus. Failing in that enterprise, Peter set out overland toward Thessalonica. In the mountains near Elbasan, he was taken by Theodore. He died probably by assassination.

▪ Russian Orthodox metropolitan

born , Volhynia, Grand Duchy of Lithuania
died Dec. 20, 1326, Moscow

      Russian Orthodox metropolitan of Kiev and Moscow (1308–26) and the first metropolitan to reside in Moscow.

      Until Peter's tenure as metropolitan, the centre of the Russian Orthodox Church had for many years been in Kiev, the ancient capital of Rus, and then for a while in Vladimir. When Peter became metropolitan, he, like his predecessors, lived in no fixed place but rather travelled throughout Russia to promote unity among rival principalities.

      His allegiance leaned toward Moscow and its prince, Ivan (Ivan I), whom he believed capable of liberating Russia from Mongol oppression. Ivan began to turn his obscure principality into a religious centre by building a cathedral to the archangel Michael and, following Peter's suggestion, a cathedral dedicated to the Assumption. Under Ivan's and Peter's influence, Moscow became the religious capital of Russia; and its position as the permanent home of the metropolitan was strengthened by Peter's direction that he be buried in the Cathedral of the Assumption there.

▪ king of Castile and Leon
byname  Peter The Cruel, or The Just,  Spanish  Pedro El Cruel, or El Justiciero 
born Aug. 30, 1334, Burgos, Castile
died March 23, 1369, Montiel, Fr.

      celebrated king of Castile and Leon from 1350 to 1369, charged by his contemporary enemies with monstrous cruelty but viewed by later writers as a strong executor of justice.

      He succeeded his father, Alfonso XI, at the age of 15, and John II of France saw the chance to force Castile into a military alliance against England. The alliance was concluded (1352), and Peter was forced to marry (1353) Blanche, daughter of Pierre, duc de Bourbon, though he was already passionately in love with the beautiful María de Padilla—who was to remain his mistress, and perhaps his legal wife, until her death (1361). He abandoned Blanche immediately after the marriage. This act ruptured the Franco-Castilian alliance.

      At home Peter was at once confronted by a row of bastard half brothers, led by Henry of Trastámara (later Henry II), who, to win support for his undefined ambitions, proclaimed himself defender of the magnates' privileges against the growing power of the crown. After leading several revolts which Peter crushed with energy, Henry, who failed to win any popular sympathy, escaped to France (1356) and offered to serve the French crown against his brother. From 1356 to 1366 Peter was engaged in a bitter war with Aragon, whose king, Peter IV, supported Henry's cause. During the war Peter won many successes against Aragon while Trastamaran propaganda failed to undermine Castilian loyalty toward him. In 1365, therefore, the French king Charles V, Pope Urban V, and Peter IV—to save Aragon from being overrun—paid veteran French mercenaries, led by Bertrand du Guesclin, to go to Spain and overthrow Peter, replacing him by Henry. Peter fled to Gascony and requested English help under the Anglo-Castilian alliance, concluded on June 22, 1362. The Trastamarans and their French allies were routed at Nájera (April 3, 1367) by Edward the Black Prince, and Peter resumed his reign.

      Charles V sent Henry back to Spain with more French troops and a long civil war ensued. Eventually Peter was defeated at Montiel and assassinated there by his brother's own hand.

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Universalium. 2010.

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