perspective


perspective
perspectival, adj.perspectived, adj.perspectiveless, adj.perspectively, adv.
/peuhr spek"tiv/, n.
1. a technique of depicting volumes and spatial relationships on a flat surface. Cf. aerial perspective, linear perspective.
2. a picture employing this technique, esp. one in which it is prominent: an architect's perspective of a house.
3. a visible scene, esp. one extending to a distance; vista: a perspective on the main axis of an estate.
4. the state of existing in space before the eye: The elevations look all right, but the building's composition is a failure in perspective.
5. the state of one's ideas, the facts known to one, etc., in having a meaningful interrelationship: You have to live here a few years to see local conditions in perspective.
6. the faculty of seeing all the relevant data in a meaningful relationship: Your data is admirably detailed but it lacks perspective.
7. a mental view or prospect: the dismal perspective of terminally ill patients.
adj.
8. of or pertaining to the art of perspective, or represented according to its laws.
[1350-1400; ME < ML perspectiva (ars) optical (science), perspectivum optical glass, n. uses of fem. and neut. of perspectivus optical, equiv. to L perspect-, ptp. s. of perspicere to look at closely (see PER-, INSPECT) + -ivus -IVE]

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Depiction of three-dimensional objects and spatial relationships on a two-dimensional plane.

In Western art, illusions of volume and space are generally created by use of the linear perspective system, based on the observation that objects appear to shrink and parallel lines to converge at an infinitely distant vanishing point as they recede in space from the viewer. The vanishing point may have been known to the Greeks and Romans but had been lost until Filippo Brunelleschi rediscovered the principles of linear or "mathematical" perspective early in the 15th century. Linear perspective dominated Western painting until the late 19th century, when Paul Cézanne flattened the conventional picture plane. The Cubists and other 20th-century painters abandoned depiction of three-dimensional space altogether. See also aerial perspective.

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art
      method of graphically depicting three-dimensional objects and spatial relationships on a two-dimensional plane or on a plane that is shallower than the original (for example, in flat relief).

 Perceptual methods of representing space and volume, which render them as seen at a particular time and from a fixed position and are characteristic of Chinese and most Western painting since the Renaissance, are in contrast to conceptual methods. Pictures drawn by young children and primitives (untrained artists), many paintings of cultures such as ancient Egypt (art and architecture, Egyptian) and Crete, India, Islam, and pre-Renaissance Europe, as well as the paintings of many modern artists, depict objects and surroundings independently of one another—as they are known to be, rather than as they are seen to be—and from the directions that best present their most characteristic features. Many Egyptian and Cretan paintings and drawings, for example, show the head and legs of a figure in profile, while the eye and torso are shown frontally (see photograph—>). This system produces not the illusion of depth but the sense that objects and their surroundings have been compressed within a shallow space behind the picture plane.

      In Western art, illusions of perceptual volume and space are generally created by use of the linear perspectival system, based on the observations that objects appear to the eye to shrink and parallel lines and planes to converge to infinitely distant vanishing points as they recede in space from the viewer. Parallel lines in spatial recession will appear to converge on a single vanishing point, called one-point perspective. Perceptual space and volume may be simulated on the picture plane by variations on this basic principle, differing according to the number and location of the vanishing points. Instead of one-point (or central) perspective, the artist may use, for instance, angular (or oblique) perspective, which employs two vanishing points.

      Another kind of system—parallel perspective combined with a viewpoint from above—is traditional in Chinese painting. When buildings rather than natural contours are painted and it is necessary to show the parallel horizontal lines of the construction, parallel lines are drawn parallel instead of converging, as in linear perspective. Often foliage is used to crop these lines before they extend far enough to cause a building to appear warped.

 The early European artist used a perspective that was an individual interpretation of what he saw rather than a fixed mechanical method. At the beginning of the Italian Renaissance, early in the 15th century, the mathematical laws of perspective were discovered by the architect Filippo Brunelleschi (Brunelleschi, Filippo), who worked out some of the basic principles, including the concept of the vanishing point, which had been known to the Greeks and Romans but had been lost. These principles were applied in painting by Masaccio (as in his Trinity fresco in Santa Maria Novella, Florence; c. 1427), who within a short period brought about an entirely new approach in painting. A style was soon developed using configurations of architectural exteriors and interiors as the background for religious paintings, which thereby acquired the illusion of great spatial depth. In his seminal Della pittura (1436; On Painting), Leon Battista Alberti (Alberti, Leon Battista) codified, especially for painters, much of the practical work on the subject that had been carried out by earlier artists; he formulated, for example, the idea that “vision makes a triangle, and from this it is clear that a very distant quantity seems no larger than a point.”

      Linear perspective dominated Western painting until the end of the 19th century, when Paul Cézanne (Cézanne, Paul) flattened the conventional Renaissance picture space. The Cubists (Cubism) and other 20th-century painters abandoned the depiction of three-dimensional space altogether and hence had no need for linear perspective.

      Linear perspective plays an important part in presentations of ideas for works by architects, engineers, landscape architects, and industrial designers, furnishing an opportunity to view the finished product before it is begun. Differing in principle from linear perspective and used by both Chinese and European painters, aerial perspective is a method of creating the illusion of depth by a modulation of colour and tone.

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Universalium. 2010.

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  • PERSPECTIVE — Par sa situation au carrefour de la science, de la culture humaniste et de la pratique artistique, la perspective, comme tout autre thème interdisciplinaire, échappe à un traitement conceptuel univoque. Dans son acception technique, le terme… …   Encyclopédie Universelle

  • perspective — PERSPECTIVE. s. f. Cette partie de l Optique qui enseigne à representer les objets selon la difference que l éloignement y apporte, soit pour la figure, soit pour la couleur. Ce Peintre entend bien la perspective, les regles de la perspective. la …   Dictionnaire de l'Académie française

  • Perspective — Per*spec tive, n. [F. perspective, fr. perspectif: cf. It. perspettiva. See {Perspective}, a.] 1. A glass through which objects are viewed. [Obs.] Not a perspective, but a mirror. Sir T. Browne. [1913 Webster] 2. That which is seen through an… …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • Perspective — may mean:Literally, in visual topics: * Perspective (visual), the way in which objects appear to the eye * Perspective (graphical), representing the effects of visual perspective in drawingsMetaphorically, in relation to cognitive topics: *… …   Wikipedia

  • Perspective — Per*spec tive, a. [L. perspicere, perspectum, to look through; per + spicere, specere, to look: cf. F. perspectif; or from E. perspective, n. See {Spy}, n.] 1. Of or pertaining to the science of vision; optical. [Obs.] Bacon. [1913 Webster] 2.… …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • perspective — [pər spek′tiv] adj. [ME < LL perspectivus < L perspicere, to look through < per, through + specere, to look: see SPY] 1. of perspective 2. drawn in perspective n. [ME perspectif < ML (ars) perspectiva, perspective (art)] 1. the art of …   English World dictionary

  • Perspective — Saltar a navegación, búsqueda Perspective álbum de estudio de Jason Becker Publicación 1996 Género(s) Metal neoclásico …   Wikipedia Español

  • Perspective 66 — Album par Eddy Mitchell Sortie 1965 Label Barclay Albums de Eddy Mitchell …   Wikipédia en Français

  • perspective — late 14c., science of optics, from O.Fr. perspective, from M.L. perspectiva ars science of optics, from fem. of perspectivus of sight, optical from L. perspectus, pp. of perspicere inspect, look through, from per through + specere look at (see… …   Etymology dictionary

  • perspective — In its 17c meaning ‘mental point of view or way of regarding something’, perspective has developed a special use with on followed by the name of a subject or intellectual domain: Perspectives on Thomas Hobbes (book title, 1989) …   Modern English usage

  • Perspective — (v. lat.), 1) Lehre von den Projectionen sichtbarer Gegenstände, auf ebenen durchsichtigen Tafeln; ist von Ch. Wolf als ein Theil der Optik zur angewandten Mathematik gezogen worden. Doch ist sie nur eine Anwendung der Geometrie für einen… …   Pierer's Universal-Lexikon


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