ophthalmology

ophthalmology
ophthalmological /of thal'meuh loj"i keuhl, op-/, ophthalmologic, adj.
/of'theuhl mol"euh jee, -theuh-, -thal-, op'-/, n.
the branch of medical science dealing with the anatomy, functions, and diseases of the eye.
[1835-45; OPHTHALMO- + -LOGY]

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Medical specialty dealing with the eyes, dating to 1805.

Frans C. Donders's 1864 advances in optics allowed eyeglasses to be fitted to vision problems. The ophthalmoscope made it possible to look inside the eye and relate eye defects to internal conditions. More recent advances include eye exams, early treatment of congenital defects, and eye banks to store corneas for transplants. Ophthalmologists test visual function and examine the eye for faulty development, disease, injury, degeneration, aging, or refractive errors. They prescribe treatment for eye disease and lenses for refraction and perform surgery when needed. See also optometry, visual-field defect.

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 medical specialty dealing with the diagnosis and treatment of diseases and disorders of the eye. The first ophthalmologists were oculists. These paramedical specialists practiced on an itinerant basis during the Middle Ages. Georg Bartisch, a German physician who wrote on eye diseases in the 16th century, is sometimes credited with founding the medical practice of ophthalmology. Many important eye operations were first developed by oculists, as, for example, the surgical correction of strabismus, first performed in 1738. The first descriptions of visual defects included those of glaucoma (1750), night blindness (1767), colour blindness (1794), and astigmatism (1801).

      The first formal course in ophthalmology was taught at the medical school of the University of Göttingen in 1803, and the first medical eye clinic with an emphasis on teaching, the London Eye Infirmary, was opened in 1805, initiating the modern specialty. Advances in optics by the Dutch physician Frans Cornelis Donders in 1864 established the modern system of prescribing and fitting eyeglasses to a particular vision problem. The invention of the ophthalmoscope for looking at the interior of the eye created the possibility of relating eye defects to internal medical conditions.

      In the 20th century, advances in the field have chiefly involved the prevention of eye disease through regular eye examinations and the early treatment of congenital eye defects. Another major development was the eye bank, first established in 1944 in New York, which made corneal tissues for transplantation more generally available.

      The function of the human eye is to receive visual images. Whatever adversely affects vision is the concern of the ophthalmologist, whether it be caused by faulty development of the eye, disease, injury, degeneration, senescence, or refraction. He makes tests of visual function and examines the interior of the eye as part of a general physical examination for symptoms of systemic or neurologic diseases. He prescribes medical treatment for eye disease and glasses for refraction and performs surgical operations where indicated. See also optometry.

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Universalium. 2010.

См. также в других словарях:

  • Ophthalmology — Oph thal*mol o*gy, n. [Gr. ofqalmo s the eye + logy: cf. F. ophthalmologie.] The science which treats of the structure, functions, and diseases of the eye. [1913 Webster] …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • ophthalmology — (n.) 1842; see OPHTHALMO (Cf. ophthalmo ) + LOGY (Cf. logy). Related: Ophthalmological …   Etymology dictionary

  • ophthalmology — ► NOUN ▪ the study and treatment of disorders and diseases of the eye. DERIVATIVES ophthalmological adjective ophthalmologist noun …   English terms dictionary

  • ophthalmology — [äf΄thal mäl′ə jē, äp΄thəl mäl′ə jē; äf΄thəlmäl′ə jē, äp΄thəlmäl′ə jē, äf′thəmäl′ə jē, äp΄thəmäl′ə jē] n. [ OPHTHALMO + LOGY] the branch of medicine dealing with the structure, functions, and diseases of the eye ophthalmological [äf΄thalmə läj′i… …   English World dictionary

  • Ophthalmology — A phoropter in use …   Wikipedia

  • ophthalmology — noun The anatomy, functions, pathology, and treatment of the eye. He will reproach himself for having been the victim of some of these liabilities, but for others, like his cataract or the bad illumination, he will express regret but not remorse …   Wiktionary

  • ophthalmology — [[t]ɒ̱fθælmɒ̱ləʤi[/t]] N UNCOUNT Ophthalmology is branch of medicine concerned with people s eyes and the problems that affect them …   English dictionary

  • ophthalmology —    , ophthalmologist    Ophthalmology is the branch of medicine that deals with the anatomy, functions, pathology, and treatment of the eye. An ophthalmologist is a doctor whose specialty is this branch of medicine. See aqueous humor, colorblind …   Glossary of Art Terms

  • ophthalmology — noun Date: circa 1842 a branch of medical science dealing with the structure, functions, and diseases of the eye • ophthalmologic or ophthalmological adjective • ophthalmologically adverb …   New Collegiate Dictionary

  • ophthalmology — The medical specialty concerned with the eye, its diseases, and refractive errors. [ophthalmo + G. logos, study] * * * oph·thal·mol·o·gy mäl ə jē n, pl gies a branch of medical science dealing with the structure, functions, and diseases of the… …   Medical dictionary


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