olfactory bulb


olfactory bulb
the enlarged terminal part of each olfactory lobe from which the olfactory nerve originates.
[1865-70]

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  structure located in the forebrain of vertebrates (vertebrate) that receives neural input about odours detected by cells (cell) in the nasal cavity. The axons (axon) of olfactory receptor ( smell receptor) cells extend directly into the highly organized olfactory bulb, where information about odours is processed.

      Within the olfactory bulb are discrete spheres of nerve tissue called glomeruli. They are formed from the branching ends of axons of receptor cells and from the outer (dendritic) branches of interneurons, known in vertebrates as mitral cells, that pass information to other parts of the brain. Tufted cells, which are similar to but smaller than mitral cells, and periglomerular cells, another type of interneuron cell, also contribute to the formation of glomeruli. The axons of all the receptor cells that exhibit a response to a specific chemical or range of chemicals with similar structures converge on a single glomerulus, where they connect via synapses with the interneurons. In this way, information from large numbers of receptor cells with similar properties is brought together. Thus, even if only a few receptors are stimulated because of very low concentrations of the stimulating chemical, the effects of signals from these cells are maximized. In mice (mouse) there are about 1,800 glomeruli on each side of the brain, in rabbits (rabbit) there are about 2,000, and in dogs (dog) there are as many as 5,000. Since there are millions of olfactory receptor cells, the degree of convergence of axons, and therefore of information about a particular odour, is enormous. For example, in a rabbit, axons from about 25,000 receptor cells converge on each glomerulus.

      Terrestrial vertebrates appear to have fewer glomeruli than fish. zebra fish, commonly used in laboratory studies, have about 80 glomeruli in each olfactory bulb, and the mitral cells, which synapse (connect) with the axons of receptor cells in the glomeruli, have axons extending to several glomeruli, whereas in mammals (mammal) the main connection of each mitral cell is with one glomerulus.

Elizabeth Bernays Reginald Chapman
 

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Universalium. 2010.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • olfactory bulb — n a bulbous anterior projection of the olfactory lobe that is the place of termination of the olfactory nerves * * * bulbus olfactorius …   Medical dictionary

  • olfactory bulb — n. the tip of the long, thin lobe (olfactory lobe) extending from the bottom of each cerebral hemisphere, from which the olfactory nerve emerges …   English World dictionary

  • Olfactory bulb — Brain: Olfactory bulb Vesalius Fabrica, 1543. Olfactory Bulbs and Olfactory tracts outlined in red …   Wikipedia

  • olfactory bulb — noun one of two enlargements at the terminus of the olfactory nerve at the base of the brain just above the nasal cavities • Hypernyms: ↑neural structure • Part Holonyms: ↑rhinencephalon, ↑olfactory brain * * * noun : a bulbous anterior… …   Useful english dictionary

  • olfactory bulb — olfac′tory bulb n. anat. the anterior swelling of each olfactory lobe, in which the fibers of the olfactory nerve terminate • Etymology: 1865–70 …   From formal English to slang

  • olfactory bulb — noun Date: circa 1860 a bulbous anterior projection of the olfactory lobe that is the place of termination of the olfactory nerves and is especially well developed in lower vertebrates (as fishes) …   New Collegiate Dictionary

  • olfactory bulb — a large organ of smell, e.g. in sharks. This is the most anterior part of the brain but is distinct from the telencephalon while anteriorly it merges with the olfactory nerve …   Dictionary of ichthyology

  • Olfactory bulb mitral cell — Neuron: Mitral Cell Coronal section of olfactory bulb …   Wikipedia

  • internal granular layer of olfactory bulb — the innermost layer of the olfactory bulb, adjacent to the beginning of the olfactory tract; it consists of rows of axons from mitral and tufted cells alternating with rows of cell bodies and dendrites of granule cells …   Medical dictionary

  • external granular layer of olfactory bulb — a thin layer between the glomerular layer and the molecular layer, containing periglomerular cells …   Medical dictionary


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