Oldenburg


Oldenburg
/ohl"deuhn berrg'/; for 2, 3 also Ger. /ohl"deuhn boorddk'/, n.
1. Claes (Thure) /klows toor"euh/, born 1929, U.S. sculptor, born in Sweden.
2. a former state in NW Germany, now part of Lower Saxony.
3. a city in Lower Saxony in NW Germany: former capital of Oldenburg. 140,200.

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Former German state, since 1946 part of Lower Saxony, Germany.

It was held by the counts of Oldenburg from с 1100 until 1667, when it passed to Denmark. In the late 18th century it was ruled by the bishop of Lübeck, who was made duke of Oldenburg by Joseph II, the Holy Roman emperor. It became a grand duchy in the early 19th century and took Prussia's side in the Austro-Prussian War of 1866. It joined the German Empire in 1871. Its last grand duke abdicated in 1918. The 17th-century grand-ducal palace in the city of Oldenburg (pop., 2002 est.: 155,908) is now a state museum of art and culture.

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      city, Lower Saxony Land (state), northwestern Germany. Situated at the junction of the Hunte River and the Küsten Canal, which links the Hunte and Ems (Ems River) rivers, about 25 miles (40 km) west of Bremen, Oldenburg lies at the eastern approach to the North Sea coastal district of Leer, East Friesland (Ostfriesland). First mentioned in 1108 and chartered in 1345, it became the seat of the counts and dukes of Oldenburg in the 17th century. From 1918 to 1946 the city was the capital of Oldenburg state. There is shipping with Bremerhaven at the Weser estuary and with the Ruhr district, and Oldenburg is a centre for conventions, exhibitions, and sporting events. Printing is also important. Landmarks include the grand ducal palace (1607–15), which now houses a state museum of art and culture, and the Lamberti Church (1270; rebuilt 1790–97). Oldenburg also has other museums and art galleries, a state theatre, and botanical gardens. It is the seat of Carl von Ossietzky University of Oldenburg (founded 1973). Pop. (2003 est.) 158,340.

▪ historical state, Germany
      former German state, successively a countship, a duchy, a grand duchy, and a Land (state) before it became a Regierungsbezirk (administrative district) of Lower Saxony Land in West Germany in 1946. As a result of the administrative reorganization in 1977, Oldenburg became part of the Weser-Ems administrative district.

      At its greatest extent, between 1854 and 1937, Oldenburg had an area of 2,480 square miles (6,423 square km), comprising the main body of the territory and two exclaves, Lübeck-Eutin (209 square miles [541 square km]) and Birkenfeld (194 square miles [502 square km]). At this time the main body of Oldenburg lay on the lowlands of the North Sea and was encircled landward by Hanover (Prussian from 1866), except for a short frontier in the east with Bremen. Its capital was Oldenburg on the lower Hunte River. Wilhelmshaven, bought by Prussia in 1853, was restored to Oldenburg in 1937, and Lübeck-Eutin and Birkenfeld were transferred to Schleswig-Holstein and the Prussian Rhine province, respectively.

      From the early 12th century, a line of counts established themselves at Oldenburg, which developed into a city. Count Christian of Oldenburg (Christian I) was elected to the Danish throne in 1448; he was also king of Norway from 1450 and king of Sweden for a few years from 1457, and he acquired the duchy of Schleswig and the county of Holstein in 1460. In 1454 he ceded Oldenburg to his brother Gerhard, whose descendants acquired nearby lordships. For his neutrality in the Thirty Years' War, Count Anton Günther received from Emperor Ferdinand II the right to collect tolls from ships passing Elsfleth on the Weser. When Gerhard's line died out in 1667, the territory passed to the Danish crown. In 1773 Christian VII of Denmark ceded Oldenburg to his distant cousin Paul, the future emperor of Russia, in exchange for the latter's title to Holstein-Gottorp. Paul soon ceded it to his cousin Frederick Augustus, who held the bishopric of Lübeck and who was then created duke of Oldenburg by the Holy Roman emperor Joseph II. The principality of Birkenfeld was ceded to Oldenburg in 1817. Oldenburg became a grand duchy in the 19th century. It joined the Zollverein (German Customs Union) in 1853, favoured Prussia in the Seven Weeks' War (1866), and joined the North German Confederation in 1867 and the German Reich in 1871. With the adoption of the Weimar Constitution in 1919, the grand ducal regime was replaced by an elected Land government. In 1933 Adolf Hitler made Oldenburg the centre of a large Gau (administrative district). After World War II, Oldenburg was merged with Lower Saxony Land.

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Universalium. 2010.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Oldenburg — ist der Name folgender geographischer Objekte: Landschaften und Territorien: Oldenburg (Land), ehemaliges Land (Grafschaft, Herzogtum, Großherzogtum, Freistaat Oldenburg) Samtamt Oldenburg, ehemaliges vom Fürstbistum Paderborn und der Grafschaft… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Oldenburg — • A grand duchy, one of the twenty six federated states of the German Empire. Catholic Encyclopedia. Kevin Knight. 2006. Oldenburg     Oldenburg      …   Catholic encyclopedia

  • Oldenburg S 3 — DRG Class 13.18 Number(s): 151–154, 160, 161 DRG 13 1801–1806 Quantity: 6 Manufacturer: Hanoma …   Wikipedia

  • Oldenburg S 10 — DRG Class 16 Number(s): GOE Berlin , München , Dresden DRG 16 001–003 Quantity: 3 Manufacturer: Hanomag Year(s) of manufacture: 1917 Retired: 1926 Wheel arrangement: 2 6 2 …   Wikipedia

  • Oldenburg G 1 — Number(s): 46 Manufacturer: Krauss inter alia Year(s) of manufacture: 1867–1877 Retired …   Wikipedia

  • Oldenburg T 2 — DRG Class 98.1 Number(s): DRG 98 101–137 Quantity: 38 Manufacturer: Hanomag Year(s) of manufacture: 1896–1913 Retired: 1931 Wheel arrangement: 0 4 0 Axle arrangement …   Wikipedia

  • Oldenburg P 4.1 — DRG Class 36.12 Number(s): 36 1201–19 Quantity: 19 Year(s) of manufacture: 1896–1902 Wheel arrangement: 4 4 0 Axle arrangement: 2 B n2 Type: P 24 Gauge …   Wikipedia

  • Oldenburg S 5 — DRG Class 13.18 Number(s): DRG 13 1851–1861 Quantity: 11 Manufacturer: Hanomag Year(s) of manufacture: 1909 1913 Retired: 1927 Wheel arrangement: 4 4 0 Axle arrangem …   Wikipedia

  • Oldenburg P 4.2 — DRG Class 36.12 Number(s): DRG 36 1251 1258 Quantity: 8 Manufacturer: Hanomag Year(s) of manufacture: 1907 1909 Retired: 1929 Wheel arrangement: 4 4 0 Axle arr …   Wikipedia

  • Oldenburg G 4.2 — DRG Class 53.10 Number(s): DRG 53 1001–1003, 1051–1058 Quantity: 27 Manufacturer: Hanomag Year(s) of manufacture: 1895 1909 Retired: 1927 Wheel arrangement: 0 6 0 …   Wikipedia

  • Oldenburg G 7 — DRG Class 55.62 Wheel arrangement: 0 8 0 Axle arrangement: D n2v Service weight: 58.6 t Adhesive weight: 58.6 t Top speed: 45 km/h Driving wheel diameter: 1,350 mm …   Wikipedia


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