oil


oil
oilless, adj.oillessness, n.oillike, adj.
/oyl/, n.
1. any of a large class of substances typically unctuous, viscous, combustible, liquid at ordinary temperatures, and soluble in ether or alcohol but not in water: used for anointing, perfuming, lubricating, illuminating, heating, etc.
2. a substance of this or similar consistency.
3. refined or crude petroleum.
4. Painting.
a. See oil color.
b. See oil painting.
5. Informal. unctuous hypocrisy; flattery.
6. an oilskin garment.
7. Australian and New Zealand Slang. facts or news; information: good oil.
8. pour oil on troubled waters, to attempt to calm a difficult or tense situation, as an argument.
9. strike oil,
a. to discover oil, esp. to bring in a well.
b. to have good luck, esp. financially; make an important and valuable discovery: They struck oil only after years of market research.
v.t.
10. to smear, lubricate, or supply with oil.
11. to bribe.
12. to make unctuous or smooth: to oil his words.
13. to convert into oil by melting, as butter.
adj.
14. pertaining to or resembling oil.
15. using oil, esp. as a fuel: an oil furnace.
16. concerned with the production or use of oil: an offshore oil rig.
17. made with oil.
18. obtained from oil.
[1125-75; ME olie, oile < OF < L oleum, olivum (olive) oil < *oleivum (cf. DEUS) < dial. Gk *élaiwon (Attic élaion), deriv. of *elaíwa OLIVE]

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I
Any greasy substance liquid at room temperature and insoluble in water.

It may be a fixed (nonvolatile) oil, an essential oil, or a mineral oil (see petroleum). Fixed oils and fats (derived from animals and plants) have the same chemical composition
both are esters of glycerol and fatty acids. These oils have a variety of industrial and food uses. Linseed, tung, and other drying oils are highly unsaturated (see saturation); these and large quantities of soybean, sunflower, and safflower oils (also constituents of foods) are used in paints and varnishes. When exposed to air they absorb oxygen and polymerize (see polymerization), forming a tough coating. Some specialty oils and oil derivatives are also used in leather dressing and textile manufacture.
II
(as used in expressions)
Arabian American Oil Company
castor oil plant
cod liver oil
Millikan oil drop experiment
Anglo Persian Oil Co. Ltd.

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      any greasy substance that is liquid at room temperature and insoluble in water. It may be fixed, or nonvolatile, oil; essential oil; or mineral oil (see petroleum).

      A brief treatment of fixed oils follows. For full treatment of edible oils, see fat and oil processing.

      Fixed oils and fats have the same chemical composition: they consist chiefly of glycerides, resulting from a reaction between an alcohol called glycerol and certain members of a group of compounds known as fatty acids. Along with proteins and carbohydrates, the glyceride oils and fats constitute the three main classes of food. Besides their nutritive importance, these oils have a variety of industrial uses. Linseed, tung, and other drying oils (i.e., those that are highly unsaturated) and large quantities of soybean, sunflower, and safflower oils are used in paints, varnishes, and alkyd resins. Such oils are particularly well suited for this application because, when exposed to air, they absorb oxygen and polymerize readily, forming thin layers as a skin or protective film. Considerable quantities of specialty oils and sulfonated oils are used in leather dressing and textile manufacture. Some other glyceride oils have properties of medicinal value. Castor oil, for example, has a strong purgative action; fish-liver oils are sources of vitamins A and D; and others such as lard, olive oil, and almond oil serve as vehicles in pharmaceutical preparations. Chaulmoogra oil, which contains unique fatty acids with a cyclic (cyclopentenyl) structure, has been used in the treatment of Hansen's disease (leprosy). See also fat.

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Universalium. 2010.

Look at other dictionaries:

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