nylon


nylon
/nuy"lon/, n.
1. any of a class of thermoplastic polyamides capable of extrusion when molten into fibers, sheets, etc., of extreme toughness, strength, and elasticity, synthesized by the interaction of a dicarboxylic acid with a diamine: used esp. for yarn, fabrics, and bristles, as for brushes.
2. nylons, stockings made of nylon, esp. sheer, full-length ones for women.
[1938; coined as a generic by the du Pont Chemical Co. as distinct from known words and having no prior meaning or use, but with the suffix -on suggesting other textile fibers such as RAYON]

* * *

Any synthetic plastic material composed of polyamides of high molecular weight and usually, but not always, manufactured as a fibre.

Nylons were developed by Du Pont in the 1930s. The successful production of a useful fibre by chemical synthesis from compounds readily available from air, water, and coal or petroleum stimulated expansion of research on polymers, leading to a rapidly growing family of synthetics. Nylon can be made to form fibres, filaments, bristles, or sheets to be manufactured into yarn, textiles, and cordage, and it can also be formed into molded products. It has high resistance to wear, heat, and chemicals. Most applications are in the form of filaments in such articles as hosiery, parachutes, and outerwear. See also W. H. Carothers.

* * *

      any synthetic plastic material composed of polyamides of high molecular weight and usually, but not always, manufactured as a fibre. Nylons were developed in the 1930s by a research team headed by an American chemist, Wallace H. Carothers, working for E.I. du Pont de Nemours & Company. The successful production of a useful fibre by chemical synthesis from compounds readily available from air, water, and coal or petroleum stimulated expansion of research on polymers, leading to a rapidly proliferating family of synthetics.

      Nylon can be drawn, cast, or extruded through spinnerets from a melt or solution to form fibres, filaments, bristles, or sheets to be manufactured into yarn, fabric, and cordage; and it can be formed into molded products. It has high resistance to wear, heat, and chemicals.

      When cold-drawn, it is tough, elastic, and strong. Most generally known in the form of fine and coarse filaments in such articles as hosiery, parachutes, and bristles, nylon is also used in the molding trade, particularly in injection molding, where its toughness and ability to flow around complicated inserts are prime advantages.

      Polyamides may be made from a dicarboxylic acid and a diamine or from an amino acid that is able to undergo self-condensation, or its lactam, characterized by the functional group −CONH− in a ring, such as ε-caprolactam. By varying the acid and the amine, it is possible to make products that are hard and tough or soft and rubbery. Whether made as filaments or as moldings, polyamides are characterized by a high degree of crystallinity, particularly those derived from primary amines. Under tension, orientation of molecules continues until the specimen is drawn to about four times its initial length, a property of particular importance in filaments.

      Two of the ingredients that are used to synthesize the most common nylon, adipic acid and hexamethylenediamine, each contain six carbon atoms, and the product has been named nylon-6,6. When caprolactam is the starting material, nylon-6 is obtained, so-named because it has six carbon atoms in the basic unit.

* * *


Universalium. 2010.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • nylon — nylon …   Dictionnaire des rimes

  • nylon — [ nilɔ̃ ] n. m. • 1942; nom déposé, mot angl. amér., p. ê. de (vi)nyl et (cott)on, (ray)on « rayonne » ♦ Fibre synthétique (polyamide), obtenue au moyen de réactions sur des sous produits du goudron. Résistance, élasticité du nylon. Brosse en… …   Encyclopédie Universelle

  • nylon — ylon n. 1. Any of several thermoplastic polyamide plastics, comprising a family of high strength resilient synthetic materials, used mostly in fibers. [WordNet 1.5] 2. A synthetic fabric consisting of fibers of nylon[wn1]. [WordNet 1.5] 3. pl.… …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • Nylon — steht für: Nylon (Band), eine Berliner Band Nylon, ein Handelsname für Kunstfasern aus Polyamid Diese Seite ist eine Begriffsklärung zur Unterscheidung mehrerer mit demselben Wort bezeichneter Begriffe …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • nylon — ☆ nylon [nī′län΄ ] n. [arbitrary coinage, infl. by (COTT)ON and (RAY)ON] 1. any of a group of synthetic long chain polymeric amides with recurring amide groups, made into fiber, yarn, bristles, sheets, molded plastics, etc. that have great… …   English World dictionary

  • nylon — nylon, ⊕ nylón → nailon …   Diccionario panhispánico de dudas

  • nylón — nylon, ⊕ nylón → nailon …   Diccionario panhispánico de dudas

  • nylon — (n.) 1938, coined, according to DuPont, from random generic syllable nyl + on, common ending in fiber names (Cf. rayon), said to be ultimately from cotton. Use (in plural) for nylon stockings is from 1940 …   Etymology dictionary

  • Nylon — Nylon: Der Name der Chemiefaser wurde im 20. Jh. aus gleichbed. engl. amerik. nylon, einem Kunstwort ohne sichere Deutung, entlehnt …   Das Herkunftswörterbuch

  • nylon — {{/stl 13}}{{stl 8}}rz. mnż I, D. u, Mc. nylonnie {{/stl 8}}{{stl 20}} {{/stl 20}}{{stl 12}}1. {{/stl 12}}{{stl 7}} włókno syntetyczne cechujące się wytrzymałością, elastycznością, odpornością na gniecenie 2. tkanina, materiał wykonany z tego… …   Langenscheidt Polski wyjaśnień

  • nylon — ► NOUN 1) a tough, lightweight, elastic synthetic polymer with a protein like chemical structure. 2) fabric or yarn made of such polymers. 3) (nylons) nylon stockings or tights. ORIGIN an invented word …   English terms dictionary


Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”

We are using cookies for the best presentation of our site. Continuing to use this site, you agree with this.