nucleotide


nucleotide
/nooh"klee euh tuyd', nyooh"-/, n. Biochem.
any of a group of molecules that, when linked together, form the building blocks of DNA or RNA: composed of a phosphate group, the bases adenine, cytosine, guanine, and thymine, and a pentose sugar, in RNA the thymine base being replaced by uracil.
[1905-10; alter. of NUCLEOSIDE]

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Any of a class of organic compounds, including the structural units of nucleic acids.

Each consists of a nucleoside and one or more phosphate groups. In nucleic acids, the phosphate of one nucleotide joins to the sugar of the next to form the backbone. Important nucleotides that are not part of nucleic acids include ATP, cyclic AMP (needed in glycogen breakdown), and certain coenzymes.

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      any member of a class of organic compounds in which the molecular structure comprises a nitrogen-containing unit (base) linked to a sugar and a phosphate group. The nucleotides are of great importance to living organisms, as they are the building blocks of nucleic acids, the substances that control all hereditary characteristics.

      A brief treatment of nucleotides follows. For full treatment, see nucleic acids (nucleic acid).

      In the two families of nucleic acids, ribonucleic acid (RNA) and deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA), the sequence of nucleotides in the DNA or RNA codes for the structure of proteins synthesized in the cell. The nucleotide adenosine triphosphate (ATP) supplies the driving force of many metabolic processes. Several nucleotides are coenzymes; they act with enzymes to speed up (catalyze) biochemical reactions.

      The nitrogen-containing bases of nearly all nucleotides are derivatives of three heterocyclic compounds: pyrimidine, purine, and pyridine. The most common nitrogen bases are the pyrimidines (cytosine, thymine, and uracil), the purines (adenine and guanine), and the pyridine nicotinamide.

      Nucleosides (nucleoside) are similar to nucleotides except that they lack the phosphate group. Nucleosides themselves rarely participate in cell metabolism.

      Adenosine monophosphate (AMP) is one of the components of RNA and also the organic component of the energy-carrying molecule ATP. In certain vital metabolic processes, AMP combines with inorganic phosphate to form ADP (adenosine diphosphate) and then ATP. The breaking of the phosphate bonds in ATP releases great amounts of energy that are consumed in driving chemical reactions or contracting muscle fibres. Cyclic AMP, another nucleotide, is involved in regulating many aspects of cellular metabolism, such as the breakdown of glycogen.

      A dinucleotide, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD), participates in many oxidation reactions as an electron carrier, along with the related compound nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADP). These substances act as cofactors to certain enzymes.

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Universalium. 2010.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Nucleotide — Nucléotide Les nucléotides sont des acides désoxyribonucléiques pour l ADN et ribonucléiques pour l ARN. Un nucléotide est composé de 3 parties : un groupement phosphate (ou acide phosphorique), identique pour les nucléotides de l ADN et de… …   Wikipédia en Français

  • nucléotide — [ nykleɔtid ] n. m. • 1963; de nucléo et ide ♦ Biochim. Constituant élémentaire des acides nucléiques formé par un nucléoside associé à un phosphate. ● nucléotide nom masculin Molécule biologique résultant de l union d un nucléoside avec l acide… …   Encyclopédie Universelle

  • nucleotide — ucleotide n. a phosphate ester of a nucleoside; one of the monomeric components of DNA or RNA. [WordNet 1.5 +PJC] …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • nucleotide — nucleotide. См. нуклеотид. (Источник: «Англо русский толковый словарь генетических терминов». Арефьев В.А., Лисовенко Л.А., Москва: Изд во ВНИРО, 1995 г.) …   Молекулярная биология и генетика. Толковый словарь.

  • Nucleotide — Nucleotide, aus einer Pentose, einem Phosphorsäurerest und einer Purinbase (Adenin, Guanin) oder Pyrimidinbase (Cytosin, Thymin, Uracil) bestehende Stoffwechselregulatoren; sie dienen in Form von Adenosindiphosphat (ADP) und Adenosintriphosphat… …   Deutsch wörterbuch der biologie

  • nucleotide — (n.) 1908, from Ger. nucleotid (1908), from nucleo , modern comb. form of L. nucleus (see NUCLEUS (Cf. nucleus)) + IDE (Cf. ide), with t for the sake of euphony …   Etymology dictionary

  • nucleotide —  Nucleotide  Нуклеотид   Соединение, в состав которого входят сахар, фосфатная группа и азотсодержащее основание (пурин или пиримидин). Нуклеиновые кислоты (ДНК и РНК) представляют собой длинные полинуклеотидные цепи, которые в ДНК содержат… …   Толковый англо-русский словарь по нанотехнологии. - М.

  • nucleotide — [no͞o′klē ō tīd΄, nyo͞o′klē ō tīd΄] n. [altered < NUCLEOSIDE] 1. any of several phosphate esters of nucleosides: the basic unit of nucleic acids 2. any of several compounds not found in nucleic acids, which function as coenzymes …   English World dictionary

  • Nucleotide — Nucleotides are molecules that, when joined together, make up the structural units of RNA and DNA. In addition, nucleotides participate in cellular signaling (cGMP and cAMP), and are incorporated into important cofactors of enzymatic reactions… …   Wikipedia

  • Nucléotide — Structure des nucléotides Un nucléotide est une molécule organique composée d une nucléobase, d un pentose et de 1 à 3 groupements phosphates. Certains nucléotides forment la base de l ADN et de l ARN, d autres sont des cofacteurs ou coenzymes.… …   Wikipédia en Français


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