nomenclature


nomenclature
nomenclatural, nomenclatorial /noh'meuhn kleuh tawr"ee euhl, -tohr"-/, nomenclative /noh"meuhn klay'tiv/, adj.
/noh"meuhn klay'cheuhr, noh men"kleuh cheuhr, -choor'/, n.
1. a set or system of names or terms, as those used in a particular science or art, by an individual or community, etc.
2. the names or terms comprising a set or system.
[1600-10; < L nomenclatura a calling by name, list of names. See NOMENCLATOR, -URE]

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      in biological classification, system of naming organisms. The species to which the organism belongs is indicated by two words, the genus and species names, which are Latinized words derived from various sources. This system, which is called the Linnaean system of binomial nomenclature, was established in the 1750s by Carolus Linnaeus (Linnaeus, Carolus). Subsequent to the work of Linnaeus, a proliferation of binomial names took place as new species were established and higher taxonomic categories were formed, with the result that by the late 19th century there was much confusion in the nomenclature of many groups of organisms. In the 20th century, the establishment of rules by international committees in the fields of zoology, botany, bacteriology, and virology has done much to clarify the situation.

      Contrary to the widely held view that scientific names, once assigned, are fixed and universal in their use, continuing research on the relationships of organisms and probing into the history of names, coupled with disagreements among scientists on the validity of certain names, results in multiple names being applied to some well-known species. The international rules, however, are gradually bringing stability to the taxonomy of many groups through the minimizing of name changes, the use of standard methods of establishing new names, and the functioning of respected committees to arbitrate controversies.

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Universalium. 2010.

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  • nomenclature — [ nɔmɑ̃klatyr ] n. f. • 1559; lat. nomenclatura « action d appeler (calare) par le nom (nomen) » 1 ♦ Ensemble des termes employés dans une science, une technique, un art..., méthodiquement classés; méthode de classement de ces termes. ⇒… …   Encyclopédie Universelle

  • Nomenclature — No men*cla ture, n. [L. nomenclatura: cf. F. nomenclature. See {Nomenclator}.] 1. A name. [Obs.] Bacon. [1913 Webster] 2. A vocabulary, dictionary, or glossary. [R.] [1913 Webster] 3. The technical names used in any particular branch of science… …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • nomenclature — (n.) c.1600, a name, from M.Fr. nomenclature (16c.), from L. nomenclatura calling of names, from nomenclator namer, from nomen name (see NAME (Cf. name) (n.)) + calator caller, crier, from calare call out (see …   Etymology dictionary

  • nomenclature — index call (title), classification, denomination Burton s Legal Thesaurus. William C. Burton. 2006 …   Law dictionary

  • nomenclature — [n] vocabulary classification, codification, glossary, locution, phraseology, taxonomy, terminology; concepts 275,276,683 …   New thesaurus

  • nomenclature — ► NOUN 1) the selecting of names for things in a particular field. 2) a body or system of names. 3) formal the term or terms applied to someone or something. DERIVATIVES nomenclatural adjective. ORIGIN Latin nomenclatura, from nomen name +… …   English terms dictionary

  • nomenclature — [nō′mən klā΄chər; ] also, and chiefly Brit [, nō men′klə chər] n. [L nomenclatura: see NOMENCLATOR] 1. the system or set of names used in a specific branch of learning or activity, as in biology for plants and animals, or for the parts of a… …   English World dictionary

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  • Nomenclature — Une nomenclature désigne une instance de classification (code, tableau, liste, règles d attribution d identité...) faisant autorité et servant de référence à une discipline donnée. Le mot et l idée viennent directement du latin nomenclatura… …   Wikipédia en Français

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  • nomenclature — (no man kla tu r ) s. f. 1°   Ensemble des mots d un dictionnaire.    Catalogue de plusieurs mots les plus ordinaires d une langue, pour en faciliter l usage à ceux à qui on l enseigne. 2°   Collection des mots employés pour désigner les… …   Dictionnaire de la Langue Française d'Émile Littré


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