nitroglycerin


nitroglycerin
/nuy'treuh glis"euhr in/, n. Chem., Pharm.
a colorless, thick, oily, flammable, highly explosive, slightly water-soluble liquid, C3H5N3O9, prepared from glycerol with nitric and sulfuric acids: used chiefly as a constituent of dynamite and other explosives, in rocket propellants, and in medicine as a vasodilator in the treatment of angina pectoris.
Also, nitroglycerine /nuy'treuh glis"euhr in, -euh reen'/. Also called glonoin, glyceryl trinitrate, trinitroglycerin.
[1855-60; NITRO- + GLYCERIN]

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Organic compound, powerful explosive and ingredient of most forms of dynamite.

It is a colourless, oily, somewhat toxic liquid with a sweet, burning taste. Its safe use as a blasting explosive became possible after Alfred P. Nobel developed dynamite in the 1860s with an inert porous material (moderator) such as charcoal or diatomaceous earth. Nitroglycerin is also used in a mixture in rocket propellants. In medicine, it is used to dilate blood vessels, especially to ease angina pectoris.

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also called  Glyceryl Trinitrate,  

      a powerful explosive and an important ingredient of most forms of dynamite (q.v.). It is also used with nitrocellulose in some propellants, especially for rockets and missiles, and it is employed as a vasodilator in the easing of cardiac pain.

      Pure nitroglycerin is a colourless, oily, somewhat toxic liquid having a sweet, burning taste. It was first prepared in 1846 by the Italian chemist Ascanio Sobrero by adding glycerol to a mixture of concentrated nitric and sulfuric acids. The hazards involved in preparing large quantities of nitroglycerin have been greatly reduced by widespread adoption of continuous nitration processes.

      Nitroglycerin, with the molecular formula C3H5(ONO2)3, has a high nitrogen content (18.5 percent) and contains sufficient oxygen atoms to oxidize the carbon and hydrogen atoms while nitrogen is being liberated, so that it is one of the most powerful explosives known. Detonation of nitroglycerin generates gases that would occupy more than 1,200 times the original volume at ordinary room temperature and pressure; moreover, the heat liberated raises the temperature to about 5,000° C (9,000° F). The overall effect is the instantaneous development of a pressure of 20,000 atmospheres; the resulting detonation wave moves at approximately 7,700 m per second (more than 17,000 miles/h). Nitroglycerin is extremely sensitive to shock and to rapid heating; it begins to decompose at 50°–60° C (122°–140° F) and explodes at 218° C (424° F).

      The safe use of nitroglycerin as a blasting explosive became possible after the Swedish chemist Alfred B. Nobel (Nobel, Alfred Bernhard) developed dynamite in the 1860s by combining liquid nitroglycerin with an inert porous material such as charcoal or diatomaceous earth. Nitroglycerin plasticizes collodion (a form of nitrocellulose) to form blasting gelatin, a very powerful explosive. Nobel's discovery of this action led to the development of ballistite, the first double-base propellant and a precursor of cordite.

      A serious problem in the use of nitroglycerin results from its high freezing point (13° C [55° F]) and the fact that the solid is even more shock-sensitive than the liquid. This disadvantage is overcome by using mixtures of nitroglycerin with other polynitrates; for example, a mixture of nitroglycerin and ethylene glycol dinitrate freezes at −29° C (−20° F).

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Universalium. 2010.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Nitroglycerin — Ni tro*glyc er*in, Nitroglycerine Ni tro*glyc er*ine(n[imac] tr[ o]*gl[i^]s [ e]r*[i^]n), n. [Nitro + glycerin.] (Chem.) A liquid appearing like a heavy oil, colorless or yellowish, and consisting of a mixture of several glycerin salts of nitric… …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • Nitroglycerīn — (Glonoin), C6H5 (3 NO4) O6 + 3 HO, erhält man durch allmäliges Eintragen von Glycerin in eine Mischung von Salpetersäure u. Schwefelsäure unter starker Abkühlung; es ist ein farbloses Öl, löst sich leicht in Alkohol u. Äther, schwer in Wasser,… …   Pierer's Universal-Lexikon

  • nitroglycerin — or nitroglycerine [nī΄trō glis′ər in, nī΄trəglis′ər in] n. a thick, pale yellow, flammable, explosive oil, C3H5 (ONO2)3, prepared by treating glycerin with a mixture of nitric and sulfuric acids: used in medicine and in making dynamites and… …   English World dictionary

  • Nitroglycerin — This article is about the chemical properties of nitroglycerin and its use as an explosive. For medical and pharmacological applications, see glyceryl trinitrate (pharmacology). Nitroglycerin …   Wikipedia

  • Nitroglycerin — Strukturformel Allgemeines Name Nitroglycerin …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Nitroglycerin — ◆ Ni|tro|gly|ce|rin 〈n. 11; unz.; fachsprachl.〉 = Nitroglyzerin ◆ Die Buchstabenfolge ni|tr... kann in Fremdwörtern auch nit|r... getrennt werden. * * * Ni|t|ro|gly|ce|rin [↑ Nitro (3)]: ↑ Glycerintrinitrat. * * * Nitroglycerin,   richtiger …   Universal-Lexikon

  • nitroglycerin — An explosive yellowish oily fluid formed by the action of sulfuric and nitric acid s on glycerin; used as a vasodilator, especially in angina pectoris; generates nitric oxide. SYN: glyceryl trinitrate, trinitroglycerin. * * * ni·tro·glyc·er·in or …   Medical dictionary

  • nitroglycerin — [[t]na͟ɪtroʊglɪ̱sərɪn[/t]] also nitroglycerine N UNCOUNT Nitroglycerin is a liquid that is used to make explosives and also in some medicines …   English dictionary

  • nitroglycerin — nitroglycerine UK / US or nitroglycerin UK [ˌnaɪtrəʊˈɡlɪsərɪn] / US [ˌnaɪtroʊˈɡlɪsərɪn] noun [uncountable] chemistry a chemical used for making bombs and some types of medicine …   English dictionary

  • nitroglycerin — or nitroglycerine noun Etymology: International Scientific Vocabulary Date: 1857 an oily explosive poisonous liquid C3H5N3O9 used chiefly in making dynamite and in medicine as a vasodilator …   New Collegiate Dictionary


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