nitrobenzene


nitrobenzene
/nuy'troh ben"zeen, -ben zeen"/, n. Chem.
a pale yellow, toxic, water-soluble liquid, C6H5NO2, produced by nitrating benzene with nitric acid: used chiefly in the manufacture of aniline. Also called nitrobenzol /nuy'troh ben"zawl, -zol/.
[1865-70; NITRO- + BENZENE]

* * *

      the simplest aromatic nitro compound, having the molecular formula C6H5NO2. It is used in the manufacture of aniline, benzidine, and other organic chemicals. Nitrobenzene is a colourless to pale yellow, oily, highly toxic liquid with the odour of bitter almonds.

      Nitrobenzene was first prepared in 1834 by the German chemist Eilhardt Mitscherlich (Mitscherlich, Eilhardt), who treated benzene with fuming nitric acid. Commercially, both batch and continuous processes employing mixed nitric and sulfuric acids are used to make nitrobenzene.

      Nitrobenzene undergoes nitration, halogenation, and sulfonation much more slowly than does benzene. It may be reduced to a variety of compounds, depending on the reaction conditions. Most nitrobenzene produced is reduced to aniline; smaller amounts are converted to azobenzene, hydrazobenzene (the intermediate for benzidine), and phenylhydroxylamine. Reduction of both the nitro group and the benzene ring affords cyclohexylamine. Nitrobenzene is used as a mild oxidizing agent in the syntheses of quinoline and fuchsin.

* * *


Universalium. 2010.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Nitrobenzene — Nitrobenzène Nitrobenzène Général Synonymes Nitrobenzol Nitrophène Essence de mirbane No CAS …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Nitrobenzène — Général Synonymes Nitrobenzol Nitrophène Essence de mirbane No CAS …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Nitrobenzene — Other names …   Wikipedia

  • nitrobenzène — [ nitrobɛ̃zɛn ] n. m. • 1903; nitrobenzine 1838; de nitro et benzène ♦ Dérivé nitré du benzène (C6H5NO2), liquide toxique, huileux, utilisé en parfumerie (essence de mirbane), dans la fabrication d explosifs, dans l industrie des colorants. ⇒… …   Encyclopédie Universelle

  • Nitrobenzene — Ni tro*ben zene (? or ?), n. [Nitro + benzene.] (Chem.) A yellow aromatic liquid ({C6H5.NO2}), produced by the action of nitric acid on benzene, and called from its odor {imitation oil of bitter almonds}, or {essence of mirbane}. It is used in… …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • nitrobenzene — /nitroben dzɛne/ s.m. [comp. di nitro e benzene ]. (chim.) [nitroderivato velenoso del benzene, dall odore di mandorle amare, largamente usato per produrre benzidina e altri composti organici e in profumeria] ▶◀ nitrobenzolo …   Enciclopedia Italiana

  • nitrobenzene — [nī΄trōben′zēn΄] n. a poisonous yellow liquid, C6H5NO2, prepared by treating benzene with nitric acid, used in making aniline, as a solvent, etc …   English World dictionary

  • nitrobenzene — nitrobenzenas statusas T sritis chemija formulė C₆H₅NO₂ atitikmenys: angl. nitrobenzene rus. нитробензол …   Chemijos terminų aiškinamasis žodynas

  • nitrobenzene — noun Etymology: International Scientific Vocabulary Date: 1868 a poisonous yellow oily liquid C6H5NO2 with an almond odor that is used especially in chemical synthesis (as of aniline) …   New Collegiate Dictionary

  • nitrobenzene — noun A nitro derivative of benzene, CHNO, prepared by reacting benzene with a mixture of nitric and sulphuric acids; any of a series of such compounds having two or more nitro groups Syn: nitrobenzol, oil of mirbane See Also: nitrobenzyl …   Wiktionary