nickel


nickel
/nik"euhl/, n., v., nickeled, nickeling or (esp. Brit.) nickelled, nickelling, adj.
n.
1. Chem. a hard, silvery-white, ductile and malleable metallic element, allied to iron and cobalt, not readily oxidized: used chiefly in alloys, in electroplating, and as a catalyst in organic synthesis. Symbol: Ni; at. wt.: 58.71; at. no.: 28; sp. gr.: 8.9 at 20°C.
2. a cupronickel coin of the U.S., the 20th part of a dollar, equal to five cents.
3. a nickel coin of Canada, the 20th part of a dollar, equal to five cents.
v.t.
4. to cover or coat with nickel; nickel-plate.
adj.
5. Slang. costing or worth five dollars: a nickel bag of heroin.
[1745-55; < Sw, abstracted from kopparnickel < G Kupfernickel niccolite, lit., copper demon (so called because though looking like copper it yielded none); Nickel demon, special use of short form of Nikolaus proper name. Cf. OLD NICK, PUMPERNICKEL]

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Metallic chemical element, one of the transition elements, chemical symbol Ni, atomic number 28.

Nickel is silvery white, tough, harder than iron, ferromagnetic (see ferromagnetism), and highly resistant to rusting and corrosion. It occasionally occurs free and is fairly common but not often concentrated in igneous rocks. As pure metal, it is used to coat other metals (see plating) and as a catalyst. In alloys, it is used in coins, Monel metal, nickel silver, nickel-chrome and stainless steels, permanant magnets, and cutlery. Its compounds, in which it most often has valence 2, have a variety of industrial uses, as catalysts and mordants (see dye) and in electroplating.

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Introduction
 chemical element, ferromagnetic metal of Group 10 (VIIIb) of the periodic table, markedly resistant to oxidation and corrosion.

Properties, occurrence, and uses
      Silvery-white, tough, and harder than iron, nickel is widely familiar because of its use in coinage but is more important either as the pure metal or in the form of alloys for its many domestic and industrial applications. Elemental nickel very sparingly occurs together with iron in terrestrial and meteoric deposits. The metal was isolated (1751) by a Swedish chemist and mineralogist, Baron Axel Fredrik Cronstedt (Cronstedt, Axel Fredrik), who prepared an impure sample from an ore containing niccolite (nickel arsenide). Earlier, an ore of this same type was called Kupfernickel after “Old Nick” and his mischievous gnomes because, though it resembled copper ore, it yielded a brittle, unfamiliar metal. Twice as abundant as copper, nickel constitutes about 0.007 percent of the Earth's crust; it is a fairly common constituent of igneous rocks, though singularly few deposits qualify in concentration, size, and accessibility for commercial interest. The central regions of the Earth are believed to contain considerable quantities. The most important sources are pentlandite, found with nickel-bearing pyrrhotite, of which certain varieties contain 3 to 5 percent nickel, and chalcopyrite, and nickel-bearing laterites, such as garnierite, a magnesium–nickel silicate of variable composition.

      The metallurgy of nickel is complicated in its details, many of which vary widely, according to the particular ore being processed. In general the ore is transformed to dinickel trisulfide, Ni2S3 (with nickel in the +3 oxidation state), which is roasted in air to give nickel oxide, NiO (+2 state), which is then reduced with carbon to obtain the metal. Some high-purity nickel is made by the carbonyl process mentioned earlier. (For information about the mining, refining, and production of nickel, see nickel processing.)

      Nickel (atomic number 28) resembles iron (atomic number 26) in strength and toughness but is more like copper (atomic number 29) in resistance to oxidation and corrosion, a combination accounting for many of its applications. Nickel has high electrical and thermal conductivity. More than half the nickel produced is used in alloys with iron (particularly in stainless steels), and most of the rest is used in corrosion-resistant alloys with copper (including Monel, which contains some 60 to 70 percent nickel, 30 to 40 percent copper, and small amounts of other metals such as iron) and in heat-resistant alloys with chromium. Nickel is also used in electrically resistive, magnetic, and many other kinds of alloys, such as nickel silver (with copper and zinc but no silver). The unalloyed metal is utilized to form protective coatings on other metals, especially by electroplating. Finely divided nickel is employed to catalyze the hydrogenation of unsaturated organic compounds (e.g., fats and oils).

      Nickel can be fabricated readily by the use of standard hot and cold working methods. Nickel reacts only slowly with fluorine, eventually developing a protective coating of the fluoride, and therefore is used as the pure metal or in the form of alloys such as Monel in equipment for handling fluorine gas and corrosive fluorides. Nickel is ferromagnetic at ordinary temperatures, although not as strongly as iron, and is less electropositive than iron but dissolves readily in dilute mineral acids.

      Natural nickel consists of five stable isotopes: nickel-58 (68.27 percent), nickel-60 (26.10 percent), nickel-61 (1.13 percent), nickel-62 (3.59 percent), and nickel-64 (0.91 percent). It has a face-centred-cubic crystal structure. Nickel is ferromagnetic up to 358° C, or 676° F (its Curie point). The metal is uniquely resistant to the action of alkalies and is frequently used for containers for concentrated solutions of sodium hydroxide. Nickel reacts slowly with strong acids under ordinary conditions to liberate hydrogen and form Ni2+ ions.

Compounds
      In its compounds nickel exhibits oxidation states of -1, 0, +1, +2, +3, and +4, though the +2 state is by far the most common. Ni2+ forms a large number of complexes, encompassing coordination numbers 4, 5, and 6 and all of the main structural types—e.g., octahedral, trigonal bipyramidal, tetrahedral, and square.

      Compounds with nickel in the +2 state have a variety of industrial applications. For example, nickel chloride, NiCl2, nickel nitrate, Ni(NO3)2·6H2O, and nickel sulfamate, Ni(SO3NH2)2∙4H2O, are employed chiefly in nickel electroplating baths. Nickel sulfate, NiSO4, is also used in nickel plating as well as in the preparation of catalysts, ground-coat enamels, and mordants (fixatives) for dyeing and textile printing. Nickel oxide, NiO, and nickel peroxide, Ni2O3, are prepared for use in fuel cells and storage batteries, respectively. Nickel ferrites are utilized as magnetic cores for various types of electrical equipment such as antennas and transformers.

      Typical compounds of nickel in nature, in which it occurs primarily as minerals in combination with arsenic, antimony, and sulfur, are nickel sulfide, NiS; nickel arsenide, NiAs; nickel antimonide, NiSb; nickel diarsenide, NiAs2; nickel thioarsenide, NiAsS; and nickel thioantimonide, NiSbS. In the sulfide, nickel is in the +2 oxidation state; in all the other compounds cited, it is in the +3 state.

      Among other important commercial compounds are nickel carbonyl, or tetracarbonylnickel, Ni(CO)4. This compound, in which nickel exhibits a zero oxidation state, is used primarily as a carrier of carbon monoxide in the synthesis of acrylates (compounds utilized in the manufacture of plastics) from acetylene and alcohols. It was the first of a class of compounds called metal carbonyls to be discovered (1890). The colourless, volatile liquid is formed by the action of carbon monoxide on finely divided nickel and is characterized by an electronic configuration in which the nickel atom is surrounded by 36 electrons. This type of configuration is quite comparable to that of the noble-gas atoms.

atomic number
28
atomic weight
58.69
melting point
1,453° C (2,647° F)
boiling point
2,732° C (4,950° F)
density
8.902 (25° C)
oxidation states
0, +1, +2, +3
electronic config.
[Ar]3d84s2

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Universalium. 2010.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • NICKEL — Élément métallique de numéro atomique 28 (symbole Ni), le nickel est abondant dans les météorites et à l’intérieur du globe terrestre (manteau et noyau), où il se classerait au cinquième rang par ordre d’abondance. Il arrive au vingt troisième ou …   Encyclopédie Universelle

  • Nickel-62 — is an isotope of nickel having 28 protons and 34 neutrons. It is a stable isotope, with the highest binding energy per nucleon of any known nuclide (8.7945 MeV).[1] It is often stated (e.g. here) that 56Fe is the most stable nucleus , but… …   Wikipedia

  • Nickel — Nick el, n. [G., fr. Sw. nickel, abbrev. from Sw. kopparnickel copper nickel, a name given in derision, as it was thought to be a base ore of copper. The origin of the second part of the word is uncertain. Cf. {Kupfer nickel}, {Copper nickel}.] 1 …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • Nickel-62 — Le nickel 62, noté 62Ni, est l isotope du nickel dont le nombre de masse est égal à 62 : son noyau atomique compte 28 protons et 34 neutrons avec un spin 0+ pour une masse atomique de 61,9283451 g/mol. Il est caractérisé par un défaut… …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Nickel — Smn erw. fach. (18. Jh.) Onomastische Bildung. Entlehnt aus nschw. nickel. Der schwedische Mineraloge von Cronstedt, der als erster das Metall rein darstellte, gab ihm 1754 die Bezeichnung nickel als Kurzform von nschw. kopparnickel Kupfernickel …   Etymologisches Wörterbuch der deutschen sprache

  • Nickel [1] — Nickel Ni, Metall, Atomgew. 58,7, spez. Gew. 8,9. Schmelzpunkt 1484°. Das grauweiße starkglänzende Metall ist politurfähig, hämmerbar und duktil. Es ist wie Eisen schweißbar und magnetisch, zeigt aber viel geringere Neigung als dieses, sich mit… …   Lexikon der gesamten Technik

  • nickel — (n.) whitish metal element, 1755, coined in 1754 by Swedish mineralogist Axel von Cronstedt (1722 1765) from shortening of Swed. kopparnickel copper colored ore (from which it was first obtained), a half translation of Ger. Kupfernickel, lit.… …   Etymology dictionary

  • nickel — [nik′əl] n. [Swed: contr. (1754) by A. F. Cronstedt (1722 65), Swed mineralogist < kopparnickel, niccolite < Ger kupfernickel, false nickel (< kupfer, + nickel, goblin, devil, pejorative contr. < Nikolaus, NICHOLAS1, prob. infl. by… …   English World dictionary

  • nickel — ► NOUN 1) a silvery white metallic chemical element resembling iron, used in alloys. 2) N. Amer. informal a five cent coin. ► VERB (nickelled, nickelling; US nickeled, nickeling) ▪ coat with nickel …   English terms dictionary

  • Nickel — (Bastardeisen) Ni, Metall, findet sich gediegen als Eisennickel und Phosphoreisennickel im Meteoreisen, mit Schwefel verbunden als Nickel oder Haarkies NiS mit 64,8 Proz. N., mit Arsen verbunden als Rotnickelkies (Kupfernickel) NiAs mit 43,6 Proz …   Meyers Großes Konversations-Lexikon

  • Nickel — Nickel: Der seit der 2. Hälfte des 18. Jh.s bezeugte Metallname ist entlehnt aus schwed. nickel, einer Kürzung aus schwed. kopparnickel »Rotnickelkies« (nach dt. Kupfernickel). Das Metall wurde 1751 von dem schwed. Mineralogen v. Cronstedt… …   Das Herkunftswörterbuch


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