Newton


Newton
/nooht"n, nyooht"n/, n.
1. Sir Isaac, 1642-1727, English philosopher and mathematician: formulator of the law of gravitation.
2. a city in E Massachusetts, near Boston. 83,622.
3. a city in central Kansas. 16,332.
4. a city in central Iowa, E of Des Moines. 15,292.
5. a male given name: a family name taken from a place-name meaning "new town."

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I
Absolute unit of force, abbreviated N, in the metre-kilogram-second (MKS) system of physical units (see International System of Units).

It is defined as the force necessary to provide a mass of 1 kg with an acceleration of 1 m per second per second. One newton is equal to a force of 100,000 dynes in the centimetre-gram-second (CGS) system, or a force of about 0.2248 lb in the foot-pound-second (English or U.S.) system. It is named for Isaac Newton, whose second law of motion describes the changes a force can produce in the motion of a body.
II
(as used in expressions)
Baker Newton Diehl
Mitchell John Newton
Newton's law of gravitation
Newton's laws of motion
Newton Huey Percy
Newton Sir Isaac
Tarkington Newton Booth

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      city, seat (1846) of Jasper county, central Iowa, U.S., about 30 miles (50 km) east of Des Moines. It was settled in 1846 as the county seat and was named for John Newton, a soldier of the American Revolution. The railroad arrived in the 1860s and the community developed as a lumber-milling and agricultural trading centre. In 1898 the washing machine industry began there with the manufacture of ratchet-slat washers. Newton was where Frederick L. Maytag invented a “hand power” washing machine (1907) and his motor-driven washer (1911), which revolutionized the industry.

      The manufacture of automatic laundry appliances is still the economic mainstay, and history of the laundry industry is depicted in exhibits at the Jasper County Historical Museum (1975). The city's other products include plastics, advertising specialties, and dairy foods (notably blue cheese from the Maytag Dairy Farms). Newton has a campus of the Des Moines Area Community College and is home to the International Wrestling Institute and Museum. Neal Smith National Wildlife Refuge (established 1990) is about 15 miles (25 km) to the southwest at Prairie City and is the site of a large-scale restoration of the region's original tallgrass and oak savanna environment. Also nearby (east) is Rock Creek State Park. Inc. 1857. Pop. (1990) 14,789; (2000) 15,579.

      city, seat (1872) of Harvey county, central Kansas, U.S. Founded in 1871 and named for Newton, Massachusetts, it was a railhead for the Chisholm Trail cattle drives from 1871 to 1873, when it was designated a division point of the Santa Fe Railroad. In the 1870s Russian Mennonite settlers began raising Turkey Red hard winter wheat brought from their homeland, and this variety became Kansas's principal agricultural product. Newton is now a trading and shipping centre for the surrounding wheat-growing area. Also significant to Newton's economy are railroad maintenance shops, food-processing and grain-milling plants, and factories that manufacture mobile homes. Bethel College (1887) in North Newton is the oldest Mennonite college in the United States; the Kauffman Museum on its campus features collections of antique automobiles and pioneer relics, as well as a reconstructed prairie with 16 species of native grasses and more than 100 species of wildflowers. A popular area attraction is the Mennonite Heritage Museum in Goessel, north of Newton. Inc. 1872. Pop. (1990) 16,700; (2000) 17,190.

      city, Middlesex county, eastern Massachusetts, U.S. It lies along the Charles River just west of Boston and comprises several villages, including Auburndale, Newton Centre, Newton Upper Falls, Newtonville, Nonantum, Waban, and the northern part of Chestnut Hill (shared with Brookline).

      Settled in 1630, it was part of Cambridge until separately incorporated as New Towne in 1688; it adopted its present name in 1691. Newton developed early milling and forge industries at the upper and lower falls of the Charles River. Suburban growth was stimulated by completion of the Boston and Worcester Railroad in 1834 and the building of the Charles River Railroad in the mid-19th century. Most employment is now provided by services (including higher education and health care) and trade.

      The city is noted for its educational institutions, being the home of Andover Newton Theological School (1807) and Lasell College (1851) and two junior colleges, Mount Ida College (1899) and Aquinas College at Newton (1961). Chestnut Hill is the site of Boston College (1863). The Jackson Homestead (1809) houses a museum and the offices of the Newton Historical Society. Recreational sites include the Charles River Reservation and the Webster Conservation Area. Inc. city, 1873. Pop. (1990) 82,585; (2000) 83,829.

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Universalium. 2010.

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