/nooh tral"i tee, nyooh-/, n.1. the state of being neutral.2. the policy or status of a nation that does not participate in a war between other nations: the continuous neutrality of Switzerland.3. neutral status, as of a seaport during a war.[1425-75; late ME; see NEUTRAL, -ITY]
* * *Legal status of a country arising from its abstention from all participation in a war between other countries, the maintenance of an attitude of impartiality toward the belligerents, and the recognition by the belligerents of this abstention and impartiality.Historically, the rights of neutral countries typically included freedom from use or occupation of their territory by any warring party, maintenance of diplomatic relations with other neutrals and belligerents, freedom of their citizens to go about their business, and respect for their intent to be neutral. In both World War I and World War II, many of the basic concepts of neutrality ceased to be respected, and by the late 20th century the freedom of the neutral had been sharply reduced.
* * *the legal status arising from the abstention of a state from all participation in a war between other states, the maintenance of an attitude of impartiality toward the belligerents, and the recognition by the belligerents of this abstention and impartiality. Under international law this legal status gives rise to certain rights and duties between the neutral and the belligerents.The laws concerning the rights and duties of neutrality are contained, for the most part, in the Declaration of Paris of 1856, Hague Convention V, 1907 (neutrality in land war), and Hague Convention XIII, 1907 (neutrality in maritime war). One of the first recommendations of the last convention was that, when war breaks out between certain powers, each nation wishing to remain impartial should normally issue either a special or general declaration of neutrality. Such a declaration, however, is not required by international law. A neutral state may, during the course of the hostilities, repeal, change, or modify its position of neutrality, provided that such alterations are applied without bias to all belligerents.The most important of the rights that result from a state of neutrality is the right of territorial integrity. Belligerents may not use a neutral's territory as a base of operations or engage in hostilities therein. This right applies not only to neutral territory and water but extends to air space above that territory as well. Under the Hague Rules of Air Warfare, 1923 (which never became legally binding), neutrals have the right to defend their air space from passage of belligerent aircraft. The emergence of ballistic missiles and space satellites as tools of warfare, however, has raised questions regarding the extent of a state's upper boundary.A neutral also has the right to maintain diplomatic communications with other neutral states and with the belligerents; the right to demand compliance with its domestic regulations designed to secure its neutrality; and the right to require belligerents not to interfere with the commercial intercourse of its citizens, unless such interference is warranted by international law.The events of World Wars I and II foreshadowed a breakdown of some of the basic concepts of neutrality. With the German invasion of Belgium, the Italian invasion of Greece, the British occupation of Iceland, and the passage by the United States of the Lend-Lease Act (1941), the traditional rules of neutrality appeared no longer viable. By the middle of the 20th century new developments in the law of neutrality were evident. (1) The total character of modern war, with its use of economic as well as mechanized means of warfare, has sharply reduced the traditional area of freedom of the neutral. (2) Under the provisions of the Charter of the United Nations, neutrality, as a permissive legal status, disappears for those members that the Security Council “calls upon” or requires in specific instances to take military or other measures of coercion against an aggressor (Articles 41, 48). (3) The socialization of national economies may result in a lessening of neutral trade; many business enterprises that could formerly trade with belligerents as private traders could no longer legally do so as state enterprises.
* * *
Look at other dictionaries:
Neutrality — Neu*tral i*ty, n. [Cf. F. neutralit[ e].] 1. The state or quality of being neutral; the condition of being unengaged in contests between others; state of taking no part on either side; indifference. [1913 Webster] Men who possess a state of… … The Collaborative International Dictionary of English
neutrality — I noun aloofness, detachment, disinterest, disinterestedness, dispassionateness, impartiality, indifference, moderateness, neutralism, nonbelligerence, noncombatance, noninterference, nonintervention, nonparticipance, nonparticipation,… … Law dictionary
neutrality — (n.) late 15c., the neutral party in any dispute, from M.Fr. neutralite (14c.) or directly from M.L. neutralitatem (nom. neutralitas), from L. neutralis (see NEUTRAL (Cf. neutral)). Meaning a neutral attitude is from late 15c … Etymology dictionary
neutrality — [no͞o tral′ə tē, nyo͞otral′ə tē] n. the quality, state, or character of being neutral; specif., a) the status or policy of a nation not participating directly or indirectly in a war between other nations b) neutral status, as of a seaport in… … English World dictionary
neutrality — n. 1) to maintain, observe neutrality 2) to declare one s neutrality 3) armed; strict neutrality * * * [njuː trælɪtɪ] observe neutrality strict neutrality armed to declare one s neutrality to maintain … Combinatory dictionary
Neutrality — The recognition of Austria as a neutral state in perpetuity took place as part of the general negotiations for the Austrian State Treaty in 1955. The policy was then especially favored by the foreign minister, Bruno Kreisky, and had been… … Historical dictionary of Austria
neutrality — noun ADJECTIVE ▪ political, religious ▪ armed ▪ a policy of armed neutrality. ▪ strict VERB + NEUTRALITY ▪ … Collocations dictionary
neutrality — In international law, the attitude of impartiality during periods of war adopted by third states toward a belligerent and subsequently recognized by the belligerent, which creates rights and duties between the impartial states and the belligerent … Military dictionary
neutrality — /njuˈtræləti/ (say nyooh traluhtee) noun 1. the state of being neutral. 2. the attitude or status of a nation which does not participate in a war between other nations: the continuous neutrality of Switzerland. 3. neutral status, as of a seaport… … Australian English dictionary
neutrality — neutralumas statusas T sritis chemija apibrėžtis Cheminių dalelių, turinčių priešingo ženklo krūvių, koncentracijų lygybė sistemoje. atitikmenys: angl. neutrality rus. нейтральность … Chemijos terminų aiškinamasis žodynas