neon


neon
/nee"on/, n.
1. Chem. a chemically inert gaseous element occurring in small amounts in the earth's atmosphere, used chiefly in a type of electrical lamp. Symbol: Ne; at. wt.: 20.183; at. no.: 10; density: 0.9002 g/l at 0°C and 760 mm pressure.
2. See neon lamp.
3. a sign or advertising sign formed from neon lamps.
adj.
4. using or containing the gas neon.
5. made of or formed by a neon lamp or lamps: a neon sign.
6. of, pertaining to, or characteristic of a tawdry urban district or of gaudy nighttime entertainment.
[1895-1900; < NL < Gk néon new, recent (neut. of néos); see -ON1]

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Chemical element, chemical symbol Ne, atomic number 10.

One of the noble gases, neon is colourless, odourless, tasteless, and completely unreactive. It occurs in minute amounts in the atmosphere and is obtained by fractional distillation of liquefied air. When under low pressure, it glows a bright orange-red if an electric current is passed through it. It was discovered in 1898, and since the 1920s its chief use has been in luminous tubes and bulbs.

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  chemical element, inert gas of Group 18 (noble gases (noble gas)) of the periodic table (periodic law), used in electric signs and fluorescent lamps (fluorescent lamp). Colourless, odourless, tasteless, and lighter than air, neon gas occurs in minute quantities in Earth's (Earth) atmosphere and trapped within the rocks of Earth's crust. Though neon is about 31/2 times as plentiful as helium in the atmosphere, dry air contains only 0.0018 percent neon by volume. This element is more abundant in the cosmos than on Earth. Neon liquefies at −246.048 °C (−411 °F) and freezes at a temperature only 21/2° lower. When under low pressure, it emits a bright orange-red light if an electrical current (electric current) is passed through it. This property is utilized in neon signs (which first became familiar in the 1920s), in some fluorescent and gaseous conduction lamps, and in high-voltage testers. The name neon is derived from the Greek word neos, “new.”

      Neon was discovered (1898) by the British chemists Sir William Ramsay (Ramsay, Sir William) and Morris W. Travers as a component of the most volatile fraction of liquefied crude argon obtained from air. It was immediately recognized as a new element by its unique glow when electrically stimulated. Its only commercial source is the atmosphere, in which it is 18 parts per million by volume. Because its boiling point is −246 °C (−411 °F), neon remains, along with helium and hydrogen, in the small fraction of air that resists liquefaction upon cooling to −195.8 °C (−320.4 °F, the boiling point of liquid nitrogen). Neon is isolated from this cold, gaseous mixture by bringing it into contact with activated charcoal, which adsorbs the neon and hydrogen; removal of hydrogen is effected by adding enough oxygen to convert it all to water, which, along with any surplus oxygen, condenses upon cooling. Processing 88,000 pounds of liquid air will produce one pound of neon.

      No stable chemical compounds of neon have been observed. Molecules (molecule) of the element consist of single atoms (atom). Natural neon is a mixture of three stable isotopes (isotope): neon-20 (90.92 percent); neon-21 (0.26 percent); and neon-22 (8.82 percent). Neon was the first element shown to consist of more than one stable isotope. In 1913, application of the technique of mass spectrometry revealed the existence of neon-20 and neon-22. The third stable isotope, neon-21 was detected later. Twelve radioactive isotopes (radioactive isotope) of neon also have been identified.

atomic number
10
atomic weight
20.183
melting point
−248.67 °C (−415.5 °F)
boiling point
−246.048 °C (−411 °F)
density (1 atm, 0° C)
0.89990 g/litre
oxidation state
0
electronic config.
1s22s22p6

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Universalium. 2010.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • néon — néon …   Dictionnaire des rimes

  • NEON — Beschreibung junges Unisex Magazin Verlag Gruner und Jahr …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • néon — [ neɔ̃ ] n. m. • 1898; gr. neos « nouveau » et suff. on; cf. argon, krypton 1 ♦ Chim. Élément atomique (Ne; no at. 10; m. at. 20,18), gaz incolore de la série des gaz rares. Le néon à basse pression émet une lumière rouge lorsqu il est traversé… …   Encyclopédie Universelle

  • Neon — Néon Néon Fluor ← Néo …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Néon — Fluor ← Néon → Sodium He …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Neon — ? Neon Самец Neon nelli Научная классификация Царство …   Википедия

  • neon — NEÓN s.n. Element chimic, gaz nobil neinflamabil, fără miros şi fără culoare, folosit la umplerea unor lămpi electrice. [pr.: ne on] – Din fr. néon. Trimis de LauraGellner, 08.06.2004. Sursa: DEX 98  neón s. n., simb. Ne Trimis de siveco,… …   Dicționar Român

  • Neon — Sn (ein Gas, das in Leuchtröhren verwendet wird) erw. fach. (20. Jh.) Neoklassische Bildung. Entlehnt aus ne. neon, dem substantivierten Neutrum von gr. néos jung, neu . So benannt als das neuentdeckte (Gas) .    Ebenso nndl. neon, ne. neon, nfrz …   Etymologisches Wörterbuch der deutschen sprache

  • neon — Symbol: Ne Atomic number: 10 Atomic weight: 20.183 Colourless gaseous element of group 18 on the periodic table (noble gases). Neon occurs in the atmosphere, and comprises 0.0018% of the volume of the atmosphere. It has a distinct reddish glow… …   Elements of periodic system

  • neon — (n.) 1898, coined by its discoverers, Sir William Ramsay and Morris W. Travers, from Gk. neon, neuter of neos new (see NEW (Cf. new)); so called because it was newly discovered. Neon sign is attested from 1927 …   Etymology dictionary

  • neon — I {{/stl 13}}{{stl 8}}rz. mnż I, D. u, Mc. neonnie {{/stl 8}}{{stl 7}} napis, rysunek zrobiony z jedno lub wielokolorowych świetlówek, zapalany w nocy w celach reklamowych lub dekoracyjnych : {{/stl 7}}{{stl 10}}Na ulicach jarzyły się barwne… …   Langenscheidt Polski wyjaśnień


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