naphthalene


naphthalene
naphthalic /naf thal"ik, nap-/, naphthalenic /naf'theuh len"ik, nap'-/, adj.
/naf"theuh leen', nap"-/, n. Chem.
a white, crystalline, water-insoluble hydrocarbon, C10H8, usually obtained from coal tar: used in making dyes, as a moth repellant, etc.
Also, naphthaline, naphthalin /naf"theuh lin, nap"-/.
[1865-70; NAPHTH- + -AL3 + -ENE]

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Simplest of the fused (condensed) ring hydrocarbons, an aromatic compound composed of two benzene rings sharing two adjacent carbon atoms (C10H8).

It is a white solid at room temperature, very volatile, with a characteristic odour. Naphthalene is an important raw material in the manufacture of dyes and synthetic resins and has been used as a moth repellent.

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      the simplest of the fused or condensed ring hydrocarbon compounds composed of two benzene rings sharing two adjacent carbon atoms; chemical formula, C10H8. It is an important hydrocarbon raw material that gives rise to a host of substitution products used in the manufacture of dyestuffs and synthetic resins. Naphthalene is the most abundant single constituent of coal tar, a volatile product from the destructive distillation of coal, and is also formed in modern processes for the high-temperature cracking (breaking up of large molecules) of petroleum. It is commercially produced by crystallization from the intermediate fraction of condensed coal tar and from the heavier fraction of cracked petroleum. The substance crystallizes in lustrous white plates, melting at 80.1° C (176.2° F) and boiling at 218° C (424° F). It is almost insoluble in water. Naphthalene is highly volatile and has a characteristic odour; it has been used as moth repellent.

      In its chemical behaviour, naphthalene shows the aromatic character associated with benzene and its simple derivatives. Its reactions are mainly reactions of substitution of hydrogen atoms by halogen atoms, nitro groups, sulfonic acid groups, and alkyl groups. Large quantities of naphthalene are converted to naphthylamines and naphthols for use as dyestuff intermediates. For many years napthalene was the principal raw material for making phthalic anhydride.

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Universalium. 2010.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Naphthalene — Naph tha*lene, n. (Chem.) A white crystalline aromatic hydrocarbon, {C10H8}, analogous to benzene, and obtained by the distillation of certain bituminous materials, such as the heavy oil of coal tar. It is the type and basis of a large number of… …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • naphthalene — (n.) 1821, coined by English chemist John Kidd (1775 1851), who first isolated and studied it, from NAPHTHA (Cf. naphtha) + chemical suffix INE (Cf. ine) (2) + l for the sake of euphony …   Etymology dictionary

  • naphthalene — [naf′thəlēn΄, nap′thəlēn΄] n. [earlier naphthaline < NAPHTHA + l + INE3] a white, crystalline, aromatic hydrocarbon, C10H8, produced in the fractional distillation of coal tar: it is used in moth repellents and in the manufacture of certain… …   English World dictionary

  • Naphthalene — Not to be confused with Naphtha, a broad term describing liquid hydrocarbon mixtures. Naphthalene …   Wikipedia

  • naphthalene — naftalenas statusas T sritis chemija formulė C₁₀H₈ atitikmenys: angl. naphthalene rus. нафталин …   Chemijos terminų aiškinamasis žodynas

  • naphthalene — noun Etymology: alteration of earlier naphthaline, irregular from naphtha Date: 1821 a crystalline aromatic hydrocarbon C10H8 usually obtained by distillation of coal tar and used especially in organic synthesis …   New Collegiate Dictionary

  • naphthalene — noun a) A white crystalline hydrocarbon manufactured from coal tar; used in mothballs. b) An aromatic bicyclic hydrocarbon, CH; an acene containing two fused benzene …   Wiktionary

  • naphthalene — A carcinogenic and toxic hydrocarbon obtained from coal tar; used for many syntheses in industry and in some moth repellents; n. can cause an attack of hemolytic anemia in individuals with a deficiency of glucose 6 phosphate dehydrogenase. SYN …   Medical dictionary

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  • naphthalene — naph·thalene || næfθəliːn , næp n. crystalline hydrocarbon derived from coal tar used in making dye and moth repellant (Chemistry) …   English contemporary dictionary


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