mussel


mussel
/mus"euhl/, n.
any bivalve mollusk, esp. an edible marine bivalve of the family Mytilidae and a freshwater clam of the family Unionidae.
[bef. 1000; ME, OE muscle < VL *muscula, var. of L musculus little mouse, sea mussel. See MUSCLE]

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Any of numerous bivalve species of either the marine family Mytilidae, found worldwide, or the freshwater superfamily Unionacea, called naiads, found mostly in the U.S. and Southeast Asia.

Marine mussels are usually wedge-shaped or pear-shaped and 2–6 in. (5–15 cm) long. They may be smooth or ribbed and often have a hairy covering. The shells of many species are dark blue or greenish brown on the outside and pearly on the inside. Mussels attach themselves to solid objects or to one another, often forming dense clusters. Some burrow into soft mud or wood. They are eaten by birds and starfishes, and some species are raised commercially for food.

Atlantic ribbed mussels (Modiolus demissus)

Walter Dawn

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      any of numerous bivalve mollusks belonging to the marine family Mytilidae and to the freshwater family Unionidae. Worldwide in distribution, they are most common in cool seas. Freshwater mussels, also known as naiads, include about 1,000 known species inhabiting streams, lakes, and ponds over most of the world.

      Marine mussels are usually wedge-shaped or pear-shaped and range in size from about 5 to 15 centimetres (about 2 to 6 inches). They may be smooth or ribbed and often have a hairy covering. The shells of many species are dark blue or dark greenish brown on the outside; on the inside they are often pearly. Mussels attach themselves to solid objects or to one another by proteinaceous threads called byssus threads; they often occur in dense clusters. Some burrow into soft mud or wood. Principal enemies of the mussel are birds (e.g., herring gulls, oystercatchers, ducks), starfishes, and dog whelks.

      Some species (e.g., the blue mussel, Mytilus edulis) are important as food in Europe and other parts of the world and are raised commercially. M. edulis, which attains lengths of up to 11 cm and is usually blue or purple, has been cultivated in Europe since the 13th century. Mussels are collected from deep water by means of dredges or rakes.

      The two species of the tiny zebra mussel (genus Dreissena) are prominent freshwater pests, known to proliferate readily and to adhere in great numbers to virtually any surface. The zebra mussel's filtering activities tend to wipe out phytoplankton, disrupting the aquatic food chain that supports many fish species and driving many native mussel species to extinction. In addition, its massive clustering on water-intake valves and pipes, bridge abutments, and other structures can cause severe commercial damage. The zebra mussel made its first known attack on Europe in the early 1800s, proliferated in the 20th century, and was carried (probably in ship ballast water) to North America about 1986, eventually invading all the Great Lakes. At present, zebra mussels are spreading to inland lakes and other waterways in parts of the United States.

      The capax horse mussel (Modiolus capax) has a bright orange-brown shell under a thick periostracum; its range in the Pacific Ocean extends from California to Peru. The Atlantic ribbed mussel (Modiolus demissus), which has a thin, strong, yellowish brown shell, occurs from Nova Scotia to the Gulf of Mexico. The tulip mussel (Modiolus americanus), from North Carolina to the Caribbean Sea, attaches itself to broken shells and rocks; its smooth, thin shell is usually light brown but sometimes has rosy or purple rays.

      The yellow mussel (Mytilus citrinus), from southern Florida to the Caribbean, is a light brownish yellow. The hooked, or bent, mussel (M. recurvus), from New England to the Caribbean, attains lengths of about 4 cm and is greenish brown to purplish black. The scorched mussel (M. exustus), from North Carolina to the Caribbean, is bluish gray and about 2.5 cm long.

      The largest family of freshwater mussels is the Unionidae, with about 750 species, the greatest number of which occur in the United States. Many unionid species also live in Southeast Asian waters. Several North American unionids are threatened by habitat degradation, damming, and the invasion of zebra mussels.

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Universalium. 2010.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Mussel — Mus sel, n. [See {Muscle}, 3.] 1. (Zo[ o]l.) Any one of many species of marine bivalve shells of the genus {Mytilus}, and related genera, of the family {Mytid[ae]}. The common mussel ({Mytilus edulis}; see Illust. under {Byssus}), and the larger …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • mussel — (n.) O.E. muscle, musscel shellfish, mussel, from L.L. muscula (source of O.Fr. musle, Mod.Fr. moule, M.Du. mosscele, Du. mossel, O.H.G. muscula, Ger. Muschel), from L. musculus mussel, lit. little mouse, also muscle; like …   Etymology dictionary

  • mussel — [mus′əl] n. [ME muscle < OE, akin to OHG muscula, both < VL * muscula, for L musculus, mussel, MUSCLE] any of various bivalve mollusks; specif., a) any of a sometimes edible saltwater family (Mytilidae) that anchors to rocks, ships, etc. by …   English World dictionary

  • mussel — ► NOUN 1) a marine mollusc with a dark brown or purplish black shell. 2) a freshwater mollusc, some kinds of which produce small pearls. ORIGIN Latin musculus muscle …   English terms dictionary

  • Mussel — Not to be confused with muscle. Mussel Blue mussels Mytilus edulis in the intertidal zone in Cornwall, England Scientific classification Kingdom …   Wikipedia

  • Mussel — 52°57′18″N 7°2′17″E / 52.955, 7.03806 …   Wikipédia en Français

  • mussel — noun /ˈmʌsəl/ A small edible bivalve shellfish of the families Unionidae (fresh water mussels) and Mytilidae (salt water mussels). See Also: zebra mussel, mussel bed, mussel bed …   Wiktionary

  • mussel — UK [ˈmʌs(ə)l] / US noun [countable] Word forms mussel : singular mussel plural mussels a small shellfish with a soft body inside a hard black or green shell, often cooked and eaten as food …   English dictionary

  • mussel — muscle, mussel Muscle is the fibrous body tissue, mussel the bivalve mollusc …   Modern English usage

  • mussel — noun Etymology: Middle English muscle, from Old English muscelle, from Vulgar Latin *muscula, from Latin musculus muscle, mussel Date: before 12th century 1. a marine bivalve mollusk (especially genus Mytilus) usually having a dark elongated… …   New Collegiate Dictionary


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