Morisco


Morisco
/meuh ris"koh/, adj., n., pl. Moriscos, Moriscoes.
adj.
1. Moorish.
n.
2. a Moor, esp. one of the Moors of Spain.
[1540-50; < Sp, equiv. to Mor(o) MOOR + -isco adj. suffix]

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▪ Spanish Muslim
      (Spanish: “Little Moor”), one of the Spanish Muslims (or their descendants) who became baptized Christians.

      During the Christian reconquest of Muslim Spain, surrendering Muslim (Mudejar) communities in Aragon (1118), Valencia (1238), and Granada (1492) were usually guaranteed freedom of religion by treaty. This tolerant policy was abandoned in the late 15th century, when Christian authorities began to make conversions and ordered the destruction of Islāmic theological books. The Muslims of Granada rebelled. In 1502, offered the choice of baptism or exile, many of them were baptized and continued to practice Islām (Islāmic world) secretly; in 1526 the Muslims of Valencia and Aragon were similarly forced to convert. Thereafter, Islām was officially prohibited in Spain.

      The Moriscos, however, did not prove to be assimilable. Though they were racially indistinguishable from their Old Christian neighbours (Christians who had retained their faith under Muslim rule), they continued to speak, write, and dress like Muslims. The Old Christians suspected the Moriscos of abetting the Algerians and the Turks, both enemies of Spain, and were fearful of their holy wars (jihāds), which terrorized whole districts. Subjected to discriminative taxation while their staple industry, the silk trade, was reduced by a misguided fiscal policy, ill-taught in their new faith, yet punished for ignorance by church and Inquisition, the Moriscos turned outside Spain for Muslim support. They obtained legal opinions (fatwās) that assured them that it was permissible to practice Islām in secret (taqīyah), then produced books known as aljamiados, written in Spanish, using the Arabic alphabet, to instruct fellow Moriscos in Islām.

      In 1566 Philip II issued an edict forbidding the Granada Moriscos their language, customs, and costume. They revolted in 1569; after two years of war they were removed en masse from Granada and scattered throughout northern Spain. Evidence of their continued political and religious infidelity led to a royal order for deportation on Sept. 22, 1609; their expulsion was completed some five years later. An estimated 300,000 Moriscos relocated mainly in Algeria, Tunisia, and Morocco, where again they found themselves an alien element. They were assimilated after several generations, but something of their Spanish heritage has survived into modern times.

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Universalium. 2010.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Morisco — Mo*ris co, n. [Sp. morisco Moorish.] A thing of Moorish origin; as: (a) The Moorish language. (b) A Moorish dance, now called {morris dance}. Marston. (c) One who dances the Moorish dance. Shak. (d) Moresque decoration or architecture. [1913… …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • Morisco — (adj.) 1550s, from Sp. morisco, from Moro (see MOOR (Cf. Moor)) …   Etymology dictionary

  • morisco — morisco, ca (De moro e isco). 1. adj. moro (ǁ perteneciente al África septentrional). 2. Se dice del moro bautizado que, terminada la Reconquista, se quedó en España. U. t. c. s.) 3. Perteneciente o relativo a los moriscos. 4. Méx. Se decía del… …   Diccionario de la lengua española

  • Morisco — Mo*ris co (m[ o]*r[i^]s k[ o]), a. [Sp. See {Morris} the dance.] Moresque. [1913 Webster] …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • morisco — |ò| s. m. 1. Boi arisco. 2.  [Portugal: Beira] Nome com que os boieiros costumam designar os bois amarelos escuros …   Dicionário da Língua Portuguesa

  • morisco — morisco, ca adjetivo,sustantivo masculino y femenino 1. Área: historia Del grupo de musulmanes que vivía en los reinos cristianos en la Edad Media o del que se quedó en España después de la Reconquista: los edificios moriscos, los artesanos… …   Diccionario Salamanca de la Lengua Española

  • Morisco — [mō ris′kō, məris′kō] adj. [Sp < Moro < L Maurus,MOOR] Moorish n. pl. Moriscos or Moriscoes a Moor of Spain, specif., one forced to convert to Christianity though often continuing to practice Islam secretly …   English World dictionary

  • Morisco — For the Portuguese wine grape, see Mourisco (grape). Moriscos (Spanish: [moˈɾiskos], Catalan: [muˈɾiskus]) or Mouriscos (Portuguese: [moˈɾiʃkuʃ], Galician: [mowˈɾiskos]), meaning Moorish , were the converted Christian… …   Wikipedia

  • Morisco — Para otros usos de este término, véase Moriscos. Los moriscos (palabra que deriva de moro) fueron los musulmanes del Al Andalus bautizados tras la pragmática de los Reyes Católicos del 14 de febrero de 1502. Tanto los convertidos con anterioridad …   Wikipedia Español

  • Morisco — ► adjetivo 1 Moro, natural de África del norte. ► adjetivo/ sustantivo 2 HISTORIA Se aplica al musulmán que se bautizó y permaneció en España tras la reconquista. ► adjetivo 3 HISTORIA De los moros que se quedaron en este país después de la… …   Enciclopedia Universal

  • Morisco — noun (plural cos or coes) Etymology: Spanish, from morisco, adjective, from moro Moor Date: 1625 moor; especially a Spanish Moor converted to Christianity • Morisco adjective …   New Collegiate Dictionary


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