Montgomery


Montgomery
/mont gum"euh ree, -gum"ree/, n.
1. Bernard Law, 1st Viscount Montgomery of Alamein ("Monty"), 1887-1976, British field marshal: World War II commander of British 8th Army in Africa and Europe.
2. Richard, 1736-75, American Revolutionary general.
3. a city in and the capital of Alabama, in the central part, on the Alabama River. 178,157.
4. a town in SW Ohio. 10,088.
5. Montgomeryshire.
6. a male given name.

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I
City (pop., 2000: 201,568), capital of Alabama, U.S. The site was inhabited by Indian mound builders in prehistoric times.

In 1715 the French built Fort Toulouse on the river above the present site of Montgomery. The city was founded in 1819 and named for Gen. Richard Montgomery; it became the state capital in 1847. In 1861, during the American Civil War, it served briefly as the capital of the Confederacy; it was captured by Union troops in 1865. It was a centre of the civil rights movement, notably the protests organized by Martin Luther King, Jr. Located southeast of Birmingham, it serves as the commercial centre of an agricultural region, trading in cotton and livestock and producing fertilizer. It is the seat of Alabama State University and several colleges.
II
(as used in expressions)
Clift Edward Montgomery
Montgomery of Alamein Bernard Law Montgomery 1st Viscount
Montgomery Lucy Maud
Montgomery Wes
John Leslie Montgomery
Pike Zebulon Montgomery

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 capital of the state of Alabama, U.S., and seat (1822) of Montgomery county, located in the central part of the state. The city lies near the point where the Alabama River is formed by the confluence of the Coosa (Coosa River) and Tallapoosa (Tallapoosa River) rivers. It was originally the site of Native American villages and was visited by Spanish explorer Hernando de Soto (Soto, Hernando de) in 1540. About 1717 the French built Fort Toulouse on the river a short distance north of the present site of Montgomery. The city was founded and chartered in 1819 with the consolidation of two settlements and named for General Richard Montgomery, who had been killed during the American Revolution. It was made the state capital in 1846. In February 1861, just before the start of the American Civil War, Montgomery became the first capital of the Confederacy, though the capital was moved to Richmond, Virginia, later that year. Montgomery was captured by Union troops in 1865.

      After its recovery from the war, Montgomery developed as an important centre and market for cotton, livestock, yellow pine, and hardwood. Services, especially government and health care, now form a major part of the city's economy. Livestock and dairying are also important. Industry includes poultry and beef processing and the manufacture of water heaters, wood products, plastics, textiles, and aircraft parts.

      The adjacent Maxwell Air Force Base and its Gunter Annex have added much to the civic and commercial life of the city. Maxwell is the headquarters of Air University. Montgomery itself is the seat of Auburn University Montgomery (1967), Troy University (1957), Faulkner University (1942), Huntingdon College (1854; Methodist), and Alabama State University (moved from Marion in 1887).

 The capitol building is where Alabama voted to secede from the Union on January 11, 1861, and the Confederate States of America was organized there on February 4, 1861. Other important buildings are the First White House of the Confederacy, where Jefferson Davis (Davis, Jefferson) resided, and the Alabama Department of Archives and History, which contains a historical museum and genealogical facilities. Other attractions include the Montgomery Museum of Fine Arts; the F. Scott and Zelda Fitzgerald Museum, dedicated to the author (Fitzgerald, F. Scott) and his wife, who once lived in the city; and Old Alabama Town, a historical district depicting 19th-century Alabama life. Montgomery has a ballet company and a symphony orchestra. The Alabama Shakespeare Festival runs throughout most of the year. Just outside the city are Fort Toulouse/Jackson Park, a historical site featuring the reconstructed fort, and Jasmine Hill Gardens and Outdoor Museum, containing statues, fountains, and a variety of flowers.

      Montgomery was the scene of important civil-rights activity in the late 1950s and the '60s. Led by Martin Luther King, Jr. (King, Martin Luther, Jr.), then a Montgomery minister, African Americans organized a peaceful boycott of the city's public buses in December 1955 after Rosa Parks (Parks, Rosa) was arrested for refusing to give up her seat to a white man; a year later segregation on buses was prohibited by court order. A drive to register black voters in 1965, centred at Selma, was countered with violence, which resulted in a protest march on Montgomery, led by King. The route of the march was designated the Selma-to-Montgomery National Historic Trail in 1996. The Civil Rights Memorial in downtown Montgomery honours those who died during the civil rights movement. Pop. (2000) city, 201,568; Montgomery MSA, 333,055; (2006 est.) city, 201,998; Montgomery MSA, 361,748.

Welsh  Trefaldwyn 

      town, Powys county, historic county of Montgomeryshire, Wales. In the 11th century the Norman Roger de Montgomery, 1st earl of Shrewsbury, built his castle at Hendomen, northwest of the present town, and a small village developed under its walls. In 1223 the English king Henry III built another castle at a new Montgomery, the present town, to which a royal charter was granted in 1227. This castle was dismantled by the Parliamentary army in 1644 during the English Civil Wars. The town has a parish church (St. Nicholas) dating from about 1227, with two 15th-century roods, screens, and stalls. Montgomery has remained important locally as a market for sheep and cattle, but as a regional centre it has been largely superseded by Welshpool, 8 miles (13 km) to the north. Pop. (2001) 1,256.

      county, central Maryland, U.S. It consists of a piedmont region bounded by the Patuxent River to the northeast, Washington, D.C. (Washington), to the south, and Virginia to the south and west (the Potomac River constituting the border). The county is drained by Rock Creek and features several parklands, including Seneca Creek State Park and part of Patuxent River State Park.

      Montgomery county was created in 1776 and named for Richard Montgomery, a general in the American Revolution. It contains northern and northwestern suburbs of Washington, D.C., such as Takoma Park, Silver Spring, Rockville (the county seat), and the Bethesda–Chevy Chase area, home of the National Institutes of Health and other research facilities, many of which are linked to the federal government. The economy is dominated by the service industry, especially business, engineering, research, and health services. Also important are tourism, manufacturing, and agriculture. Area 495 square miles (1,281 square km). Pop. (2000) 873,341; (2007 est.) 930,813.

      county, central New York state, U.S., located midway between Utica and Albany. It consists of a hilly region bisected east-west by the Mohawk River, which incorporates the New York State Canal System (completed 1918) and its constituent the Erie Canal (1825); Schoharie Creek is another major stream. The principal forest types are maple, birch, and beech.

       Mohawk Indians, members of the Iroquois Confederacy, were early inhabitants of the region. The family of Sir William Johnson (Johnson, Sir William, 1st Baronet), the colonial superintendent of Indian affairs and an early Mohawk valley pioneer, built homes that were restored as historic sites in Amsterdam and Fort Johnson. Fort Hunter contains an original section of the Erie Canal from the 1820s, as well as canal locks and an aqueduct from the 1840s.

      The county was created in 1772; originally named Tryon county, it was renamed in 1784 for Richard Montgomery, a general in the American Revolution. The county seat is Fonda. The economy is based on printing and the manufacturing of food products and textiles. Area 405 square miles (1,048 square km). Pop. (2000) 49,708; (2007 est.) 48,695.

      county, southeastern Pennsylvania, U.S., consisting of a gently hilly piedmont region located northwest of Philadelphia and bounded to the southwest by the Schuylkill River. Other waterways include Green Lane Reservoir and Perkiomen, Swamp, Wissahickon, Tacony, and Pennypack creeks. Recreational areas include Evansburg and Fort Washington state parks.

      Notable historic buildings include Graeme Park (1722) in Horsham, Hope Lodge (c. 1750) in Fort Washington, and Pottsgrove Manor (1754) in Pottstown. The county was created in 1784 and named for Richard Montgomery, a general in the American Revolution. Audubon was named for nearby resident John James Audubon (Audubon, John James), the ornithologist and artist. Haverford College was established in Haverford in 1833, and Bryn Mawr College was founded in 1885 in Bryn Mawr. Other communities include Lansdale, Conshohocken, Hatboro, and Norristown, which is the county seat.

      The economy is based on health care and business services, tourism, and technological industries such as research and development and the manufacture of drugs, semiconductors, and process control instruments. Area 483 square miles (1,251 square km). Pop. (2000) 750,097; (2007 est.) 776,172.

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Universalium. 2010.

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