monad


monad
monadic /meuh nad"ik/, monadical, monadal, adj.monadically, adv.
/mon"ad, moh"nad/, n.
1. Biol.
a. any simple, single-celled organism.
b. any of various small, flagellate, colorless ameboids with one to three flagella, esp. of the genus Monas.
2. Chem. an element, atom, or group having a valence of one. Cf. dyad (def. 3), triad (def. 2a).
3. Philos.
a. (in the metaphysics of Leibniz) an unextended, indivisible, and indestructible entity that is the basic or ultimate constituent of the universe and a microcosm of it.
b. (in the philosophy of Giordano Bruno) a basic and irreducible metaphysical unit that is spatially and psychically individuated.
c. any basic metaphysical entity, esp. having an autonomous life.
4. a single unit or entity.
[1605-15; < LL monad- (s. of monas) < Gk (s. of monás): unity. See MON-, -AD1]

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      (from Greek monas “unit”), an elementary individual substance that reflects the order of the world and from which material properties are derived. The term was first used by the Pythagoreans as the name of the beginning number of a series, from which all following numbers derived. Giordano Bruno (Bruno, Giordano) in De monade, numero et figura liber (1591; “On the Monad, Number, and Figure”) described three fundamental types: God, souls, and atoms. The idea of monads was popularized by Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz (Leibniz, Gottfried Wilhelm) in Monadologia (1714). In Leibniz's system of metaphysics, monads are basic substances that make up the universe but lack spatial extension and hence are immaterial. Each monad is a unique, indestructible, dynamic, soullike entity whose properties are a function of its perceptions and appetites. Monads have no true causal relation with other monads, but all are perfectly synchronized with each other by God in a preestablished harmony. The objects of the material world are simply appearances of collections of monads.

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Universalium. 2010.

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  • Monad — Mon ad, n. [L. monas, adis, a unit, Gr. ?, ?, fr. mo nos alone.] 1. An ultimate atom, or simple, unextended point; something ultimate and indivisible. [1913 Webster] 2. (Philos. of Leibnitz) The elementary and indestructible units which were… …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • monad — [mō′nad΄, män′ad΄] n. [LL monas (gen. monadis) < Gr monas (gen. monados), a unit, unity < monos, alone: see MONO ] 1. a unit; something simple and indivisible 2. Biol. a) any simple, single celled organism, specif., a simple type of… …   English World dictionary

  • monad — monad. См. монада. (Источник: «Англо русский толковый словарь генетических терминов». Арефьев В.А., Лисовенко Л.А., Москва: Изд во ВНИРО, 1995 г.) …   Молекулярная биология и генетика. Толковый словарь.

  • monad — index individual, unit (item) Burton s Legal Thesaurus. William C. Burton. 2006 …   Law dictionary

  • monad — (n.) unity, arithmetical unit, 1610s, from L.L. monas (gen. monadis), from Gk. monas unit, from monos alone (see MONO (Cf. mono )). In Leibnitz s philosophy, an ultimate unit of being (1748). Related: Monadic …   Etymology dictionary

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  • monad — noun Etymology: Late Latin monad , monas, from Greek, from monos Date: 1615 1. a. unit, one b. atom 1 c. an elementary individual substance which reflects the order of the world and from which material properties are derived 2. a flagellated… …   New Collegiate Dictionary


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